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GCSE AoS2

Shared Music lessons for OCR GCSE Music AoS2
by

Peter Bryant

on 13 March 2012

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Transcript of GCSE AoS2

AOS2
Shared Music

Solo &
Accompaniment

How an accompaniment
supports a soloist
Romantic
song

Pop Ballads
The Classical
Concerto

Jazz
What are they?
Early ballads were folk songs with a story.
They were passed down orally through the
generations in the Middle Ages.

From the mid 19th century 'Ballad' meant a
sentimental, popular song.
Love
slow tempo
A moving story
The Beatles: Yesterday
Intro / Verse 1 / Verse 2 / Bridge 1 / Verse 3 / Bridge 2 / Verse 4 / Coda
Written in 1965 by Paul McCartney
1/ Follow the structure.
2/ What are the instruments?
3/ How are they used in the song?
1/ Follow the structure.
2/ What are the instruments?
3/ How are they used in the song?
Acoustic guitar
Strings
steady quavers
sustained, sorrowful sound
Solo introduction
rhythmic drive
harmonic support
Changes through the song
Match the description
with the instrument...
Gerry Rafferty: Baker Street
1975
Elton John: Your Song
1/ How many bars is the sax solo?
2/ Compare the accompaniment
for the sax solo and first verse.
Sax solo
Heavy bass
Power chords - Guitar
Driving, syncopated rhythm
Loud, thicker texture

Verse
simple - voice needs to be heard
quiet guitar - rhythmic support
light strings - 2nd half of the verse
Celesta effect at the end of lines
Dramatic crescendo / drum fill to
build up for the sax solo
Elton John & Bernie Taupin 1969.
1/ Listen and work out the structure of the song.
2/ List the instruments.
3/ Describe how they are used...
Rhythm, harmonic support, changing texture.
1/ Listen and work out the structure of the song.
2/ List the instruments.
3/ Describe how they are used...
Rhythm, harmonic support, changing texture.
Your Song Structure...
Intro / V1 / V2 / C1 / Bridge / V3 / V4 / C2 / Coda (or outro)
A contrasting linking section
Instruments: Piano, acoustic guitar, strings, harp...

Piano and guitar - steady rhythmic drive.
Strings are sustained - giving a warm, romantic sound.
Texture changes - strings added in verse 2, percussion verse 3.
Strict rhythm in guitar and piano gives Elton John the freedom to sing with
rhythmic flexibility.
Rhythm stops for the last line of the chorus - to emphasise the words.
The Classical period was from about 1750 - 1820.
The concerto is music for:
- An Instrumental Soloist
- An Orchestra
It is nearly always in three
movements:
Fast
Slow
Fast
Classical Concertos contrast
Virtuoso solo performers
with the orchestras timbres, textures and dynamics.
Concertos were played at big concert halls across Europe
Virtuoso performers could show off their
instrumental skills and technical flair...
At the end of the first movement there was
often a cadenza.
The orchestra would pause and the soloist could
improvise and play fast, difficult passages with scales,
broken chords and decorated melodies.
Cadenza
end of 1st Movement
Improvised Virtuosity
Haydn Trumpet Concerto
in Eb Minor
Now listen to the cadenza...
How would you describe the
music?
1st Movement
Create a paragraph describing the music
incorporting these words:
Dialogue
Interplay
Introduction
Imitation
texture
flute
Mozart - Clarinet Concerto
Listen to the first part of the Adagio movement.
What does Adagio mean?
Which movement of the concerto is it?
Describe three different ways the orchestra is
used to support the soloist...
What does Adagio mean?
Which movement of the concerto is it?
Decribe three different ways the orchestra is
used to support the soloist...
1/ Piano, sustained harmonic support (opening bars)
2/ Tutti - Repetition of the opening Clarinet theme.
3/ Descending scaling passages emphasising the ends of phrases
4/ Imitation (echo effect) of the clarinet melody
nice...
What does Jazz mean to you?
Big bands - like Glen Miller?
Dixieland Jazz with Straw Boaters?
Bebop - Very fast solos in small groups?
Cool Jazz?
Free Jazz?
Cheesey Jazz in lifts?
(Kenny G)
All these types of Jazz have one thing in common
IMPROVISATION
Ensembles
Baroque & Classical
Chamber Music

Between 2 & 8
players.
- Trio (3)
- Quartet (4)
- Quintet (5)
Intimate musical
Conversation...
No conductor
Rely on visual signs to help stay in time.
Baroque
Pachelbel: Canon in D
Baroque
Corelli: Trio Sonata Op.3 No1.
Classical
Haydn: String Quartet Op.76 No.2
Texture:
Melody with Accompaniment
Baroque music was often CONTRAPUNTAL
Each line of music
is independent from the others.
Although the melody was
important, the different
musical lines also had to create good Harmony.
Baroque music often
included a Basso Continuo
Basso
Continuo
Violin 1
Violin 2
The Continuo Needed 2 instruments to play it.!
A bass instrument (Cello or Bassoon)
An instrument to play the chords (Harpsichord or Lute)
Indian Classical
Music

Connection
Watch the clip of the ALAP section of and Indian Raga
performance.

Answer the questions in the listening box on your worksheet
What is different about the music compared to music you know?
What is similar?
Indian Classical Music can be traced back
over 3000 years.
AoS 2 Shared Music looks at the way musicians
work together in Indian Classical Music.
A typical ensemble could include
the following instruments...
Sitar
Plays the Melody based on the Raga (Scale).
Plucked, with movable frets.
Has over 20 strings.
Most strings vibrate sympathy.
Pitch bend a distictive sound.
Tambura (or Tampura)
Four strings
Produces the drone - based on
two notes of the Raga (Scale)
ALL WILL BE ABLE TO:
IDENTIFY THE INSTRUMENTS FOUND
IN INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC AND
DESCRIBE THEIR ROLES.
OBJECTIVES...
WE WILL STRIVE TO:
CREATE OUR OWN INDIAN MUSIC
WITH A MELODY, DRONE AND TALA (RHYTHM)
AND LEARN THE INDIAN KEYWORDS
Tabla Drums
A pair of drums - with one smaller than the other
A range of playing techniques produce different sounds
Harmonium
An organ powered with bellows
Can be used to produce the drone
Activation
Three Elements
To Remember..

Raga - Set of Notes

Drone - Harmony

Tala - The Rhythm
Between 5 and 8 notes that give the music it's mood.
Often about a season or time of day.
The Sitar improvises using the notes of the Raga.
There are hundreds of Ragas.
Simple rhythmic patterns played by the Tambura
Two notes of the raga played to create the harmony
A set number of beats that are repeated by the Tabla Player
The first beat of the Tala is th Sam played by the whole group
There are hundreds of Talas
Structure
Demonstration
Look at the Rag below.
In groups of three create
your own music based on
Indian Classical Music.
E
F
A
B
C
1/ Improvise using
the Rag
2/ Create a drone on
the E and the A
3/ Create a Tala (rhythm)
Consolidation
Keywords -
Definition Game...
Raga
Tala
Drone
Sitar
Tabla
Tambura
Sam
Gat
Alap
Jhor
Jhala
Objectives
ALL WILL BE ABLE TO:
Identify & Describe the main differences
between classical and baroque
Chamber Music.
WE WILL STRIVE TO:
UNDERSTAND HOW A BASSO CONTINUO WORKS
AND LEARN THE CHAMBER MUSIC KEYWORDS
Connection
Listen to this example of
Chamber Music.

How would you describe
Chamber Music to someone
who had never heard it before?
Activation
''classical music written for a small group of musicians
so that it can be performed easily in a small room,
or, in the past, in a private home''
- Cambridge advanced learners dictionary.
A Definition of CHAMBER MUSIC
In the listening exam you will
be expected to identify Chamber
music - and know if it is either
BAROQUE or CLASSICAL
BAROQUE CHAMBER MUSIC
A HARPSICHORD!!- It must be Baroque!!
CLASSICAL CHAMBER MUSIC
The String Quartet became
the most important ensemble
in Chamber music of the
CLASSICAL PERIOD.
VIOLIN 2

VIOLIN 1
CELLO

VIOLA
Demonstration
In groups, listen to these examples
of chamber music.
Are they Baroque or Classical?
Give as many reasons as you can
for each example....
1600 – 1750
Harpsichord
Sudden Changes in DynamicS
(Stepped or Terraced)
Melodies Embellished
(with Trills, and turns).
Contrapuntal Texture
(Polyphonic)
Basso Continuo
(Continuous Bass)
1750 - 1820
Equal Four bar Phrases (2 bar question & 2 bar answer)
Fewer Ornaments. Piano
String Quartet
Subtle Dynamics
Crescendo
Diminuendo
Melody and accompaniment
Baroque
Classical
Consolidation
1600 - 1750
1750 - 1820
TERRACED DYNAMICS
ORNAMENTS
CRESCENDO
HARPSICHORD
PIANO
TRIO SONATA
STRING QUARTET
DIMINUENDO
TWO BAR PHRASES
POLYPHONIC
GAMELAN
Objectives
ALL WILL BE ABLE TO:
Identify & Describe the main features
of GAMELAN music & Recognise
HETEROPHONIC TEXTURE.
WE WILL STRIVE TO:
PERFORM AS A GAMELAN ENSEMBLE!
Objectives
ALL WILL BE ABLE TO:
Understand and describe the
musical genres studied in AoS2.
WE WILL STRIVE TO:
Place some of the AOS2 music we will be studying on a timeline with the main periods of Western Music
AOS2
Introduction

Other AoS2 Music not included... Indian Classical Music, Gamelan & African A Capella
Connection
Activation
A good ensemble (Shared) musical performance
requires excellent communication between the
musicians.
There are several different ways that
musicians can communicate before and
during a performance.

- How many can you think of?
1/ Talking before the performance







2/ Talking during (eg 1,2,1,2,3,4 or 'Take it to the bridge')







3/ Music notation (score, tabs, lead-sheets)







4/ Listening to each other







5/ Eye contact






6/ Gestures with an instrument or bow







7/ Watching the conductor
Demonstration
Baroque - Chamber Music
1/ How many performers?
2/ What are the Instruments?
3/ Describe how the Harpsichord
looks and sounds different from
the piano?
Classical Choral Music
1/ Describe the musical forces?
2/ How do they stay in time?
3/ How does the texture of the
singing change?
Romantic Lied
1/ How many performers?
2/ How is the piano more
expressive than the Harpsichord?
3/ Give three different ways that
the Piano supports the singer?
Jazz
1/ List the different instruments and
their role in the group.
2/ What would you call this group
of 4 musicians?
3/ Without a piano or guitar in the
group, how do the musicians create
harmony?
Gamelan
1/ Describe the type of instruments
that you see.
2/ What happens to the tempo during
the performance?
3/ How do they know what to play?
4/ How do they stay in time?
Consolidation
Large Vocal Works
Objectives
ALL WILL BE ABLE TO:
Listen to and identify
the main characteristics of large choral ensembles
WE WILL STRIVE TO:
Describe how the combined forces of a large choir and orchestra can create exciting and powerful sounds
Connection
Listen to the clip and Write down what the
choir
orchestra conductor
are doing.
Activation
A good choral ensemble (Shared) musical performance
requires excellent communication between the
performers.
Demonstration
Listen to this famous oratorio the 'Hallelujah' chorus written by Handel in 1741. Listen to the words and choose the texture that is performed by the choir to emphasize the meaning of the following words.
Consolidation



WE WILL STRIVE TO:
Read a lead sheet and IMPROVISE...
ALL WILL BE ABLE TO:
Describe how Jazz musicians communicate
in small ensembles..
Objectives
Write as much as you can about Jazz in
3 Minutes.....
Listen to the Dizzy Gillespie Big Band
from the 1940s...
- Answer the questions on your worksheet
There are many different types of Jazz.They all have IMPROVISATION in common.

Musicians make up small sections,
choruses or the whole piece.
How do Jazz musicians know what to play
if they are making it up?




Discussion in rehearsal
The Structure
Musical convention
Non verbal communication
Lead sheets
They listen
Creation of music in real time - 'on the fly'
In small Jazz ensembles,
Each instrument has a job to do...
1/ List all the instruments you can identify in the ' Big Band'
2/ Who is the first musician to improvise?
3/ What is the second instrument called?
3/ Describe the music played by the band during the Improvisation
Underline the roles for each instrument on your
worksheet...
Connection
Watch the short film about Gamelan and
answer the questions on your worksheet.
Activation
HETEROPHONIC........LAYERED.........CYCLIC
Compositions are not written down,
but passed from player to player through group rehearsals.
Demonstration


WE WILL STRIVE TO:
Listen to and identify the relationship
between the soloist and accompaniment.
ALL WILL BE ABLE TO:
Describe the main musical features of
Romantic song - Lieder
Objectives
Connection
It’s 1830
You are a wealthy businessman living in Vienna, Austria.
You are having some of your wealthy friends round for dinner.
How would you entertain them?
with Romantic Songs - or Lieder
Activation
Trade - Wealth – New Middle Classes - Culture to show off – Buy Pianos – Entertain Friends – Musical Evenings – Pay Composers - Demand for Lieder –
Listen to this Lied by Robert Schumann.
1/ How would you describe the voice?
Soprano / Alto / Tenor / Bass

2/ Why is the piano more suited to this
Romantic music than the harpsichord?

3/ Describe the music played by the piano.

Lieder are songs popular in the 19th century written to accompany the German romantic poetry of the day.




Piano and solo voice.




The music represents a wide range of emotions.



They were performed in informal, intimate settings – like the drawing rooms of the middle classes.




Today you are more likely to hear them in a concert hall.
What are Lieder?
Demonstration
Listen to Schubert’s song (Lied) Erlkonig.What is the mood of the piece?How does the piano introduction create this mood?
This is a poem by Goethe.
A father and terrified child are riding through
‘night and wind’ in a forest late at night.

The father clutches his terrified child who is being enticed away by the Elf King to his kingdom.
Erlkonig.

The Accompaniment is as
Important as the Soloist
Consolidation
Harmonic Support (chords)
Rhythm Support (tempo and accents)
Imitation
Word Painting
Expression (Dynamics & Rubato)




WE WILL STRIVE TO:
Identify and understand the musical
functions of different sections in a
Pop Ballad.
ALL WILL BE ABLE TO:
Describe how musical forces are
combined in a Pop Ballad
Objectives

HOMOPHONIC – ‘Hallelujah’

MONOPHONIC – ‘For the Lord God omnipotent reigneth’

COUNTERPOINT/POLYPHONIC - 'And he shall reign forever and ever’ – Bass, Tenor, Alto, Soprano.
The interaction of the 4 vocal parts, SOPRANO, ALTO, TENOR, BASS, build up the harmony and texture of the music together.
Each vocal part on its own can sound .....
disjointed and unmelodic
..........but sung together the vocal parts become just as important as the relationship between the CHOIR and ORCHESTRA
A CHORAL WORK is merely a choir and an orchestra working together on a large scale to create powerful and exciting sounds.
1. 'Hallelujah, Hallelujah, Hallelujah,
Hallelujah, Hallelujah, Hallelujah'.

2. 'For the Lord God omnipotent
reigneth'. (the first 2 times it is sung)

3. 'And he shall reign for ever and
ever'.
A large choral piece written for vocal soloists, mixed choir and orchestra..

It is similar to opera.

It uses words to tell a story but is performed without costumes or acting.

It also uses religious text.
(mostly heard in chuches)
ORATORIO..........

A Mass is a choral work

Latin texts from the Catholic communion service.

Texts are of repentance, praise and belief.

A requiem mass is a ‘Mass for the dead’ used to honour the deceased and is often heard in a funeral context.
MASS...............
The conductor keeps the choir and
orchestra together.

EVERYONE watches the conductor
and responds to his signals at the same time.
The full orchestra combines with the
choir to create its powerful sound
Remember.......

Ensemble musicians MUST work together in order to interpret the music and perform effectively as ONE.
They must..
1. Know when to start
2. Maintain the same tempo
3. Share a similar interpretation of dynamics.
4. Negotiate any changes of tempo together
5. Share a 'dialogue with each other
6. Know when to finish.
AFRICAN A CAPELLA SINGING

Shared music-Ensembles
OBJECTIVES
We will be able to;
Recognise the main
features of African A Cappella
singing.
We will strive to: Recreate
the A Capella technique.
CONNECTION
ACTIVATION
DEMONSTRATION
CONSOLIDATION
A cappella describes vocal music
with NO instrumental accompaniment
The word A Capella
means
'In the style of the chapel'

The choir of the Sistine
Chapel in Rome has always
sung unaccompanied.
Listen to 'In the Jungle'
and lets practice singing it
unaccompanied or rather
'A Capella'
There is a long tradition of A Capella singing from Africa

Unaccompanied songs have been passed down ORALLY between generations.
The largest ethnic group of South Africa are known as the ‘Zulu’ .
The Zulu have 2 main styles of Acappella singing;
# Isicathamiya
# Mbube.
Compare the two styles.
How do they sound similar/different?
Isicathamiya
Gentle and refined and harmonious.

Mbube
Loud and powerful.

Both are singing in close harmony.


An all male African ensemble formed in the 1960's.

No conductor and no music. The soloist leads accompanied by the rest of the choir singing in homophony.

They have to blend and sing in close harmony, and to the same rhythm. Sometimes complex rhythms and syncopation

A tight, unified ensemble. ONENESS.

Sometimes has Call and Response phrases where the soloist sings a phrase and the choir responds.
LADYSMITH BLACK MAMBAZO


Imagine you are about to here an African song performed
A CAPELLA


Describe what you might hear
considering there is no
musical accompaniment.

Discuss in pairs each of these
words in detail.
Vocal Quality (Timbre)
Call and Response
Syncopation
Homophonic texture
Soloist and Choir

Consolidation
Write five questions you expect to see
about the Classical Concerto in the
listening exam.
Full transcript