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Structure of the Universe

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sarra dreha

on 18 July 2013

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Transcript of Structure of the Universe

of the
UNIVERSE
The Structure
The Structure of the Universe
INTRODUCTION
The Structure of the Universe is the matter of our existence entirely. It includes;
planets
stars
galaxies
black holes
constellations
matter and energy
etc.
Throughout the years of scientific observations we have built a knowledge and understanding of our Universe. Although, there are several theories of how the Universe started such as; The Big Bang Theory, The Study State Theory etc. There are also many religious beliefs such as; Catholic/Christians, Buddhism, Muslims etc.
STARS
MAIN SEQUENCE STARS
Before a star becomes a 'main sequence star' ('MSS') it is a 'PMS' (pre-main sequence) which is where it will spend less than 1% of it's life as a star. It will then become a 'MSS'. These stars live the majority of their lives as a 'MSS' where they will transform into a Red Giant or a Supernova or even a Black Hole after a long period of time. But it all depends on the stars mass for what it may transform into.a
A star is the little bright ball of light we see in the night sky but in true fact it is an incredibly large sphere of extreme hot, glowing gas. They produce their own energy and light, they come in all different sizes and colours. Our sun is a average yellow star, Smaller stars are red and larger stars are blue.
THE SUN
The sun is an average sized star that orbits the Earth. Without the sun the earth would have no life. It is 109 times larger than and is a Main Sequence Star.

Protostar
A protostar is the early stage of a stars life before it becomes a 'Main Sequence Star'. The star is formed in a Giant Molecular Cloud, when (for example) a 'Supernova shock wave' occurs it collapses and pulls off into smaller fragments. The smallest fragments join together making a protostar.
STAR FORMATION
PLANETS
GALAXIES
RED GIANT
A Red Giant star is a yellow to orange colour that is 100's of times larger than the Sun but has a lower temperature. It is brighter than the Sun only because of its large size.
Not all 'main sequence stars' evolve into a Red Giant. If it's mass before was anything between 0.3 - 8 it would have been a Red Giant otherwise it could have been (if larger mass) a Supergiant. If smaller mass a 'Brown Dwarf'.
PLANETARY NEBULA
A Planetary Nebula is formed when a star lets off it's outer layers after all it's fuel is burnt out. It usually takes form into a bubble or ring. You can sometimes see a part of the star in the center of the Planetary Nebula by its glowing.
WHITE DWARF
A white Dwarf is to be one of the last stages of a stars life. When formed into a White Dwarf it is still quite hot but has no energy source so it gradually cools down. After a long period of time it will have come to a point where it would be no longer visible for losing it's temperature and energy completely, becoming a Black Dwarf.
NEBULA
A Nebula is an interstellar cloud of dust, helium, hydrogen and other ionized gases. This is where the star is created, when the gas and dust from the nebula become so hot and dense that nuclear fusion starts.
SUPERNOVA
A Supernova is when a star explodes that can produce the same amount of energy in one second as an entire galaxy.
NEUTRON STAR
A Neutron Star is one out of the two options a Supernova can have near the end of it's life. It has very intense magnetic fields and is 1.4 times larger than the Sun.
It is also the most dense object known with a gravity filed on it's surface.
BLACK HOLE
A Black hole is very similar to a vacuum collecting up debris in outer space like a vacuum would with dust. But instead of using suction like a vacuum it uses the power of gravity.
A planet (in greek) means 'wandering star'. There are 8 planets and 5 known dwarf planets in our Solar System;
5. Jupiter
6. Saturn
7. Uranus
8. Neptune
1. Mercury
2. Venus
3. Earth
4. Mars
PLANETS
Gas Giants; are largely composed of gas and are significantly more larger than Terrestrials.
Terrestrials; are planets that are similar to Earth that are mainly composed of rock. Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are all Terrestrials.
Ice Giants; are a sub-class of Gas Giant. Uranus and Neptune are both Ice Giants.
Dwarf Planets; are massive enough to be controlled by gravitation. Pluto was once a planet but is now declared a dwarf planet.

MERCURY
VENUS
EARTH
MARS
JUPITER
SATURN
NEPTUNE
URANUS
A galaxy is where millions of stars are together with dust and gas hold together by gravity. The smallest galaxies contain around hundred thousand while the largest contains billions and billions of stars. Our solar system is in the Milky Way which is one of the millions of galaxies.
CONSTELLATIONS
A constellation is a group of stars that form a pattern, typically related to mythological figures.
QUASARS
Quasars are extremely bright masses of energy and light. They are the brightest objects in our universe but because they are so far away they don't seem bright at all.
MILKY WAY
The Milky Way is the spiral galaxy that contains our solar system with millions of stars, gas, dust and planets. In Greek galaxy translates to 'Milky Way'.
SARRA DREHA
YEAR 9, SCIENCE
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
http://www.nature.com/news/galaxy-formation-the-new-milky-way-1.11517
http://www.planetsforkids.org/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_giant
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_nebula
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole_information_paradox
http://solar-center.stanford.edu/FAQ/Qsunasstar.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/J002231F/Sun/factsaboutthesun.htm
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