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Aerospace Multimedia Report - Jet Engines

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Sevriyandi Sovian

on 25 October 2012

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Transcript of Aerospace Multimedia Report - Jet Engines

Sevri Sovian Jet Engines Jet Engines are classified as gas turbines which are the responsible in propelling aeroplanes forward.
They take in air and make it into exhaust gases so that it can be used as kinetic energy.
This is how jet engines are able to propel huge aircrafts. It produces huge amounts of thrust which causes the planes to move forward and fly. What are Jet Engines?
The large fan in the front of the engine is consists of many blades and is made and constructed from durable materials such as carbon fibre and titanium. The fan is powered by the turbine and is connected by a shaft. As the fan rotates, it takes in great amount of air which the large volumes of air allow the jet engines to create thrust. Around 15% of the air that was drawn in will be guided towards the compressors the about 85% of it will go around the engine core and end up at the nozzle. Diagram of and Aircraft Jet Engine A turbojet works by taking in the air through the air inlet. The air is then compressed through the compressors. The compressed air then goes through the combustor so that it can be ignited by fuel mixture in the combustion chamber. The now hot pressurised gas goes through the turbine to power the compressor and exit the nozzle to produce thrust. Turbojet Engine Due to the added fan, it has a large front area meaning more drag and resulting in being slower than a turbojet. Turbofans are used frequently these days. They are mainly used for commercial aircrafts as they are more fuel efficient and quieter than other Jet Engines. With the huge amount of thrust it produces, it is able to accelerate huge aircrafts from 0 to 321kmpm in less than a minute. Turbofan Engine The turboprop is also efficient and quiet when compared to the other Jet Engines. They are used for small commuter planes since they are efficient and are small in size. Turboprop A Jet Engine applies to Newton’s Third Law of Motion where for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. A Jet Engine produces thrust. The action is that the Jet engine generates hot exhaust gases which exit the nozzle of the engine. The reaction is that a thrusting force in produced in the opposite direction. Physics Principles behind the jet propulsion of the Jet Engine Jet Engines are found in aircrafts and are used as Engines for a variety of aerpolanes.
Jet Engines have also been known to be used in missiles, spacecrafts, fireworks and even able to thrust highspeed ground vehicles. -FAN- A Jet Engine consists of a High-Pressure Compressor and a Low-Pressure Compressor. The both have a series of rotating blades (rotors) that take in the air. The air is then moved towards the stationary blades (stators) where these increase the pressure, temperature and energy of the air. The air firstly passes through the Low-Pressure Compressor and then through the High-Pressure Compressor. The High-Pressure Compressor rotates at a different speed than the Low-Pressure Compressor. This makes the air 35 times more compressed and 1000° C hotter than outside air. -COMPRESSOR- The compressed air is then pushed into the combustion chamber (Combustor). In the combustor, fuel injectors mix the compressed air with jet fuel which resulting in the air igniting. The amount and burn rate of the air and fuel mixture is maintained so that the jet engine is able to sustain a steady flame. The gases then flow out the rear of the engine and heads through the turbines at a fast pace. The shooting gas blast out the nozzle of the Jet Engine and thrusts both the Jet Engine and aeroplane forward. -COMBUSTION CHAMBER- The rapid gases that exit the combustor apply huge amounts of force against the turbine blades and which it spins the turbine blade. This is has a similar structure to the windmill, where a gust of wind rotates the windmill blades to generate power. When the gases exert energy against the turbine blades, the turbine spins the compressor via a shaft and generates the power for the Jet Engine to draw more wind. So then it begins the cycle over and over again. It shows that the compressor is actually powered by the air that it created. -TURBINE- The nozzle is where the gases are drain out. This is where the jet engine actually produces the thrust for the aeroplane and it is a vital component. The hot gas from the turbines is finally combined with the cold air from the fan that had bypassed the engine core. This produces a force when escaping the nozzle and therefore propels the jet Engine and aeroplane forward. The cold air mixed with the hot gas from the turbine is makes it more efficient reduces the noise made by the jet engine. -NOZZLE- This is a diagram of a Turbofan Jet Engine which are fitted big commercial aircrafts.
It consists of these major components. Types Of Jet Engines Turbojets are the simplest form of a gas turbine and have been used for many decades.
It was firstly fitted and used in World War II. Although this is the simplest form of the gas turbines, it is rarely used in aircrafts as it is less economically efficient. Nowadays, turbojets are used in missiles because of their fast speed. Here is a clip of how a Turbojet is able to produce thrust. The video showed how the air went through the air inlet then compressed and ignited with fuel to produce thrust. Turbofans are almost the same when compared to a turbojet. They both have the major components which are:
compressor
combustion chamber
turbine
nozzle The difference between the two is that a turbofan has an added part, a fan. The turbine powers the compressor and also the fan. The fan draws in higher amounts of air although at a slower velocity than the turbojet. This makes the turbofan more economically efficient and means that it is able to produce more speed. Also, when a turbofan draws in air, some of it flows along the engine core and meets up with the pressured air, producing more thrust. The gearbox is linked to the propeller of the turboprop. The gearbox is used to control the propellers speed. This help in controlling the amount of air that is drawn in to produce thrust. With the propellers being front-mounted and quite large in comparison to the engine core, turboprops are quite powerful. A turboprop is another form of gas turbine. The turboprop has the same process to propel the aeroplane as like the other Jet Engines. Its components main components are very similar to a turbofan although it has an added part, a gearbox. THRUST That thrust is created by the acceleration of air, which the equation is: × THRUST = AIRFLOW CHANGE IN VELOCITY FORCE = MASS ACCELERATION × That this equation is just an application of Newton's Second Law of Motion. The equation used for thrust is: Thrust is calculated by the acceleration of air. Thanks for watching! •http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/turbth.html
•http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blhowajetengineworks.htm
•http://www.geaviation.com/education/engines101/
•http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Evolution_of_Technology/jet_engines/Tech24.htm
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jet_engine
•http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ON 0sVe1yeOk
•http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/turbine.htm •http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/United_Airlines_B777-200_N780UA.jpg/300px-United_Airlines_B777-200_N780UA.jpg
•http://0.tqn.com/d/inventors/1/0/x/N/engineanimated.GIF
•news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/63048000/jpg/_63048278_the_ultra_modern_in_fighter_planes_57-2.jpg
•http://media.defenseindustrydaily.com/images/ORD_Affordable_Weapon_Missile_Boost_lg.jpg
•http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= MUxP3PCDRTE
•http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Turbofan_operation_lbp.svg&page=1
•http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-4rplkPrBXk4/TfgJLFnNjvI/AAAAAAAACtQ/nRboue1CYiQ/s1600/Boeing+747+airplanes.gif
•http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Turboprop_operation-en.svg&page=1
•www.commuterair.com/sites/cat/uploads/images/CATPASS 250 lake.jpg
•http://www.boeing.com/companyoffices/aboutus/wonder_of_flight/im Bibliography Info Multimedia
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