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ISLAM

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Brian Jones

on 30 September 2014

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Transcript of ISLAM

ISLAM
HIST RY
F UNDER
TEXTS
SECTS
Rituals
Pre 570AD
570AD
Muhammad Born
610AD
Muhammad claims that the archangel Gabriel appeared to him and told him to "recite" (Qur' an in Arabic) everything he said. First Revelations from Allah.
Arabia was occupied by warring clans
700AD
Christian's translate the Bible into Arabic
622AD
Muhammad gathered enough followers that they were forced to leave Mecca for Medina. Muslims refer to this event as the Hijra. The year "0" on the Muslim calendar. (A.H. = "Year of Hijra")
630AD
Return to Mecca in triumph and establish Islam as the official religion.
632AD
Muhammad's Death. Did not appoint a successor. The arguments that were produced caused the division that are present today. Poisoned following an attack on a Jewish settlement.
Islam
Post 632
Islam
Post 661
Islam
Post 750
642AD
Muslim Arabs have control of Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Iran
656AD
Arab Empire west to Tripoli (Libya), north to Taurus and Causaus mountians (Turkey and Georgia) and east to Pakistan
661AD
death of 4th caliph 'Ali - eventually leading to the Sunni/Shi`a split
711AD
Arabs entered Spain to the west (via North Africa) and crossed the Indus river in India
732AD
Defeat at Tours (France) marks deepest inroad into Western Europe (via Spain)
632-634AD
First elected official. First Caliph. Wise leader and crisis manager.
634-644AD
Omar Ibn Elkhattab
First-rate statesman. Honest, modest and just. Created the modern state (Treasury, communication, defense).
Abu Bakr
644-658AD
Collected and Compiled the Qur' an. Emergence of power struggle.
Othman bin Affan
661-750AD
Empire Center in Damascus
Ummayah Dynasty
Power struggle continues, but Caliphs brutally liquidate all rivals.
Addelmalek builds Al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock in Jersualem
Bloom of architecture, arts, agriculture, and science.
750-1258AD
Center of Empire moves to Iran and Iraq
Abbassides Dynasty
Baghdad, built 762AD b Almamsur
(2nd Caliph)
Baghdad becomes glamorous center of the world
Cairo build 968 AD
1037-1492AD
Moorish dynasties in Spain
1099AD
Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders
1492AD
Fall of Granada (Spain) marks end of Arab rule in Spain.
1947AD
Pakistan founded as Islamic state
2010AD
As of 2010, over 1.6 billion or about 23.4% of the world population are Muslims. Of these, around 62% live in Asia-Pacific, 20% in the Middle East-North Africa, 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa, around 3% in Europe and 0.3% in the Americas.
Muhammad
Bedouin Arab
Born 570 AD in Mecca
Early Years
Father died before he was born and his mother there shortly after.
Born to a respectable but not wealthy family

Muhammad was under the care of his grandparents and uncle.
Uncle was a merchant as well.
Of the Quraysh tribe who were dominate in Mecca
Merchant
Entered the caravan trade.
By the time he was 30, he had a reputation for competence and honesty.
Became financial adviser to a wealthy Quraysh widow, Kahdija.
Supervising caravans from Mecca, north to Jerusalem. Contact with both Jews and Christians.
Marriage
Married Khadija, the widow for which he was a financial adviser.
596AD
Only one daughter, Fatima, lived after him.
Had three sons who all died in childhood and four girls.
Found richness and corruption of the merchants and townspeople to be troubling.
Many Muslims believe that during this time, Muhammad would receive revelations from Gabriel the archangel.
Would go to the hills to meditate.
Revelation
Monogamous until his wife died. Had nine wives and assorted concubines.
Archangel Gabriel told Muhammad to "recite" the revelations that he told him.
Revelations we gathered in the Quar'an which translates "recite"
RECITE
Final revelation became the religion of Islam. Which means submission to the will of God.
610 AD
Teaching
Muhammad began teaching in Mecca, but he converted few people outside his own circles.
Many Meccans feared new faith might call in questions the legitimacy of the shrines in Mecca especially the Ka'aba.
Flight
Forced to leave Mecca for Medina.
Citizens asked Muhammad to become their leader.
Journey from Mecca to Medina is called the Hijra. The beginning of the Muslim calendar.
622 AD
Unity
Gathered around him a large community of believers.
Foundation of the Islamic State.
Substitution of faith for blood lines brought about the political unity among the rival Arab tribes.
Return
In control of Medina, but Mecca was a strong focus
Mecca was known for its political and economic importance to Arabia
Death
A few months after the farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and suffered for several days with fever, head pain, and weakness.
Began attacking Meccan caravans and battled with them.
In 630 AD, Muhammad returned to Mecca in triumph.
632 AD
Muhammad was poisoned by a Jewish woman, following the conquest of Khaibar, where he took Safiyah as a wife, and ordered the torture and beheading of her husband Kinana, the chief of the Jews at Khaibar.
Qur' an
Called the "book of heaven"
Complied after Muhammad's death in 650 CE by the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan.
Diverse writings that speak to ethical guidelines and laws by which Muslims should live.
Contains 114 chapters arranged from longest to shortest.
Qur' an
Written in Arabic.
Considered to only be true in its original language. Translations are said to have lost their meaning.
Some "Old" and "New" Testament stories but with a different twist.
Teachings
Prophecy
Dietary laws
No Gambling or Drinking
No sexual irregularities
No faulty weights or usury
No infanticide
Inheritance and Property
Status of Women
Status of Women
Qur'an improves the status of women
Outlawed female infanticide
Brides, not husbands, ,claim dowries
Male Dominance still preserved
Patrilineal descent
Veil adopted from ancient Mesopotamian practice.
Polygamy permitted, Polyandry forbidden.
Similarities
Monotheism
Insistence on the responsibility of human beings
to Judaism and Christianity
Final Judgement and rewards
Angels and Spirits
Practice of virtues: truthfulness, compassion, etc.
Sharia
Means "Way" or "Path"
Legal framework within which the public and some private aspects of life
Islamic Law
Hadith
A report of the deeds and sayings of Muhammad
Often translated as 'tradition'
Based on Qur'an, hadith, logical schools of analysis.
Hadiths may originate from other important characters of the earliest years of Islam such as the companions of Muhammad
Each hadith is composed of two parts, a chain of authorities reporting the hadith (isnad) and the text (mantn)
Qur'an vs.
Islam rejects the doctrine of original sin. Salvation comes only through Allah. Only those who obey Allah and Mohammed his prophet can enter into Heaven. Islam denies the crucifixion of Jesus. Jesus never died. Salvation must be earned. The only sure way to make it to heaven is for a Muslim to die in a jihad (Koran 53:38;Koran 48:13; Koran 4:154-158)
the Bible
Qur'an
Bible
The Bible teaches man is born into sin. Salvation comes only through Jesus Christ. Jesus died and rose again. Salvation comes only by faith, through grace. (Genesis 5:3; Acts 4:12; Romans 6:9;
Ephesians 2:8, 9)
Qur'an vs.
Islam considers Jesus a prophet just like Moses, Abraham, and Noah. Muslims are descendants of Ishmael.
(Koran 4:171; Koran 5:114; Koran 3:55, 58)
the Bible
Qur'an
Bible
Jesus was more than a prophet. He is God. (Matthew 17:5; Mark 1:1; Luke 1:35; Philippians 2:6; Hebrews 1:8; 1 John 4:15)
Salvation
Jesus
Qur'an vs.
Those who kill or are killed by unbelievers will return to the garden of Paradise , where they will enjoy many lustful pleasures - sex with virgins, pleasant food and drink, etc. (Koran 9:111; Koran 56:15; Koran 25:68)
the Bible
Qur'an
Bible
Those who have believed on the Lord Jesus Christ and submit their lives to his Lordship will enjoy eternal bliss in heaven, where there will be no pain or sorrow, no disease or death. Those who reject Jesus Christ will suffer eternal torments in hell.
Eternal Judgement
Qur'an vs.
The Genesis account should not be taken literally, as it contains discrepancies. The earth is billions of years old. Creation took eight days, it says in Surah 41:9, 10, 12. Surah 10:3, however, states creation took six days. The universe was produced by a "big bang" (Koran 21:30), produced by a kind of gas. The Koran states God created every living thing from water. (Koran 21:30; 24:45; Koran 50:38)
the Bible
Qur'an
Bible
A literal interpretation of Scripture indicates the earth is only a few thousand years old. God created the universe in six days and rested on the seventh day (Genesis 1:1 - 2:2; ). "In the beginning, God" (Genesis 1:1) alone existed. God spoke the universe into existence by a word. God rested on the sixth day (Exodus 31:17).
Creation
Qur'an vs.
One of the 5 tenets to which Muslims must adhere is a belief in the 4 inspired books - the Torah (5 books of Moses), Zabur (the psalms), lnjil (the gospel), and Koran. The Koran claims divine authorship and inspiration (Koran 56:77-80). Islam claims the Koran is without contradiction (Sura 4:82). The Koran will never perish (Koran 15:9).
the Bible
Qur'an
Bible
Adding to God's Word has serious consequences (Deuteronomy 4:2; 12:32). The New Testament undeniably declares the inspiration of the Old Testament. The Bible is without error (Isaiah 34:16). The Written Word of God, the Bible, is eternal (Psalms 119:89).
Word of God
Qur'an vs.
Islam both allows and forbids murder and violence, depending on who is the recipient of the act. Allah himself is really the one slaying them (Koran 8:17). Jihad is mandatory (Koran 9:38-39).(Koran 42:40;
Koran 9:3)
the Bible
Qur'an
Bible
Murder is forbidden (Exodus 20:13). Jesus and Paul both reiterated the Old Testament prohibition against murder (Matthew 5:21; Romans 13:9). God destroyed the earth with a flood because of the extent violence had spread (Genesis 6:13).
Murder, War, Violence
Qur'an vs.
Men have authority over women (Koran 2:228). Women do not have equal right to their inheritance (Koran 4:11-12). Women who disobey should be beaten (Koran 4:34).
the Bible
Qur'an
Bible
Spiritually, there is neither male nor female in Christ Jesus (Galatians 3:28). Husbands are responsible to maintain proper order and government in the family. Wives are exhorted to respect (and obey their husband (Colossians 3:18).
Treatment of Women
Qur'an vs.
Allowed marriage of up to four wives (Koran 33:51). Islam also allows sexual intercourse with one's slave maids and as many 'captive' women as one desires
(Koran 4:3). Part of the Koran, however, states that fornication and adultery are sin (Koran 17:32). Gambling and drunkenness are prohibited (Koran 5:90, 91).
the Bible
Qur'an
Bible
Adultery and fornication are forbidden (Genesis 20:9). Sexual immorality is exceedingly "evil" and "wicked" (Genesis 39:9). Gambling and drunkenness are forbidden.
Morals
Qur'an vs.
Muslims must recite prayers in praise of Allah five times daily while facing Mecca, the city where Allah revealed the Koran to Muhammad (Koran 2:150;Koran 2:4:43 ). Every Muslim (Surah 3:97) must make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his/her life: "Fulfill the pilgrimage and the visitation unto God" (Surah 2:196-197). Fasting is required of every Muslim for one month per year. This fast is complete abstinence, during daylight hours, from all food, drink, tobacco and sexual
intercourse.
the Bible
Qur'an
Bible
Christianity presents prayer, fasting and worship as arising totally without compulsion or obligation, but wholly from the heart. Fasting is to be done in a manner of humility and secrecy (Matthew 6:16-18). Contacting or praying to the dead ("necromancy") is forbidden by God in the Christian Scriptures (Deuteronomy 18:10, 11).
Prayer, Fasting, Worship
http://quran.com/
http://quran.com/
Sunni
Accepted the legitimacy of the early caliphs
From an Arabic word "usage" or "custom"
Traditionalists and Orthodox
From an Arabic word "usage" or "custom"
Consider Shi'as to be dissenters
Shi'a
Disagreements over selction of caliphs
From an Arabic word "usage" or "custom"
Believed Ali should be the next Caliph
From an Arabic word "party", "faction", "following"
Ahmadiyya
Ahmad also reinterpreted jihad as a nonviolent battle against nonbelievers, using as its weapon the pen instead of the sword
Founded in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Ahmad claimed to be the coming messiah
Ghulam Ahmad taught that Jesus feigned his crucifixion and resurrection, then lived to be 120 years old in India
PILLARS
FAITH
Shahadah
Profession of Faith
Muslims bear witness to the oneness of God by reciting the creed,
"There is no God but God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God."
This statement expresses a Muslin's complete acceptance of and total commitment to Islam.
PRAYER
Shalah
Turn to Mecca to offer five daily prayers at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and evening. In addition, Friday congregational service is also required.

ALMSGIVING
Zakah
Almsgiving is obligatory. 2.5 percent of an individuals' net worth, excluding obligations and family expenses, is reserved for the welfare of the entire community, especially its neediest members.
FASTING
Sawn
Personal worship in which Muslims seek a richer perception of God. It is also an exercise of self control.
During Ramadan abstention from eating, drinking and other sensual pleasures is obligatory from down to sunset.
End of Ramadan is observed by three days of celebration - a time for family reunion and gift-giving.
PILGRIMAGE
Haji
The pilgrimage is an expression of Islamic faith and unity. For those who are physically and financially able to make the journey to Mecca. Only once in a lifetime.
http://www.islamicbulletin.org/newsletters/issue_8/hajj.aspx
Qadiani, who recognize Ahmad as a prophet
Lahore, who regard Ahamad only as a reformer of Islam

Sufism
Less an Islamic sect than a mystical way of approaching the Islamic faith
Defined as "mystical Islamic belief and practice in which Muslims seek to find the truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God."
Muharram
The Islamic New Year
The Islamic new year is celebrated relatively quietly, with prayers and readings and reflection upon the hegira.

counted from the year of the Hegira (anno Hegirae) the year in which Muhammad emigrated from Mecca to Medina (A.D. July 16, 622).
Mawlid al-Nabi
Prophet Muhammad's Birthday
The day is commemorated with recollections of Muhammad's life and significance.
This holiday celebrates the birthday of Muhammad, the founder of Islam. It is fixed as the 12th day of the month of Rabi I in the Islamic calendar.
Eid al-Fitr
The Celebration concluding Ramadan
One of the two most important Islamic celebrations (Eid al-Adha is the other).
Ramadan, the month of fasting, ends with the festival of Eid al-Fitr. Literally the "Festival of Breaking the Fast,"
Dress in their finest clothes, adorn their homes with lights and decorations, give treats to children, and enjoy visits with friends and family.
Although charity and good deeds are always important in Islam, they have special significance at the end of Ramadan. As the month draws to a close, Muslims are obligated to share their blessings by feeding the poor and making contributions to mosques.
Eid al-Adha
The celebration concluding the Hajj
One of the two most important Islamic celebrations .
Feast of Sacrifice, commemorates the prophet Abraham's willingness to obey Allah by sacrificing his son Ishmael.
Lasting for three days, it occurs at the conclusion of the annual Hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca.
Muslims all over the world celebrate, not simply those undertaking the hajj.
The festival is celebrated by sacrificing a lamb or other animal and distributing the meat to relatives, friends, and the poor. The sacrifice symbolizes obedience to Allah and its distribution to others is an expression of generosity, one of the five pillars of Islam.
Ramadan
Month of Fasting
Every day during this month, Muslims around the world spend the daylight hours in a complete fast.
Ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar.
Muslims are called upon to use this month to re-evaluate their lives in light of Islamic guidance.
During Ramadan, every part of the body must be restrained. The tongue must be restrained from backbiting and gossip. The eyes must restrain themselves from looking at unlawful things. The hand must not touch or take anything that does not belong to it. The ears must refrain from listening to idle talk or obscene words. The feet must refrain from going to sinful places. In such a way, every part of the body observes the fast.
Mosque
In the Islamic Sharia law, after an area is formally designated as a mosque, it remains so until the Last Day.
Strict guidelines for a place to be considered a Mosque, and it is usually just merely a part of a larger complex.
Lasting for three days, it occurs at the conclusion of the annual Hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca.
The mosque serves as a place where Muslims can come together for salat (prayer) as well as a center for information, education, and dispute settlement.
Has towers called Minarets from which the imam has the calls to prayer.
Allah-hu-akbar
God is Great
Prayer
Five times a day towards Mecca. One of the five pillars.
Ka' aba
Stands some 60 feet high and each side is approximately 60 feet in length.
A large stone structure constituting a single room with a marble floor, lies at the heart of the Holy Mosque (al Masjid al Haram) in the Holy City of Mecca.
The four walls of the Kaaba are covered with a black curtain (the Kiswah) which reaches to the ground and is fastened to the Shadharwan with copper rings.
Set in the eastern corner of the Kaaba is the Black Stone (al-Hajar al-Aswad). The Black Stone predates the birth of Islam but now, set in gold, forms an integral part of the Kaaba. In the course of the pilgrimage, the Hajjis will kiss or touch the Black Stone, not because the Black Stone is holy in itself but because it was kissed by the Prophet Muhammad.
According to Quran and Islamic tradition the Kaaba was constructed by Ibrahim (Abraham). It is stated in the Qur'an that this was the first house that was built for humanity to worship Allah.
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