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AP Bio- Plant Reproduction and Responses
Transcript of AP Bio- Plant Reproduction and Responses
"Alternation of generations"
Asexual Reproduction in Aspen Trees
Sexual Reproduction in orchids
Evolutionary Trends in Plant Reproduction
Many plants reproduce asexually with ease
Most plants require pollination for sexual reproduction
Sexual life cycle of an angiosperm
Angiosperm gamete production
More Pollinator Adaptations
Mechanisms to prevent self-pollination
Seed Dispersal mechanisms
Monocots vs. Dicots
Make Sure You Can:
How are the reproductive systems of plants adapted for sexual reproduction?
How do the constraints of the environment determine the adaptations in organismal reproductive systems?
How do environmental factors affect hormonal action in plants?
How do hormones help plants coordinate and control their physiology?
Explain how sexual reproduction works in angiosperms.
Label all parts of a typical flower and explain how they contribute to sexual reproduction.
Explain how plant breeding technologies take advantage of the reproductive strategies of particular plants.
Explain how a plants immune system protects it against pathogens and herbivores
Many angiosperms produce
fuse with one pollen sperm to make triploid (3n)
tissue for seed (food source)
fuse with other pollen sperm to make diploid
to deliver 2 sperm (from generative cell) to ovule
What separates "sperm" from "egg"?
size & motility (that's it!)
structure & function!
a. dioecious plants have "male" and "female" flowers.
b. arrangement of styles and stamens can prevent self-fertilization (or at least minimize its chances)
Could there be other mechanisms?
What gets fertilized, and why?
Note: Plant Sex is analogous to Animal Sex (NOT HOMOLOGOUS!!!)
What are some of the differences in
All other Angiosperms
Photo Reponses In Plants
Growth in response to a light source.
Mediated by the hormone
How Auxin Works:
Activates proton pumps, which pump H+ into the cell wall.
, which elongate the cell wall.
Not all wavelengths of light are created equal in plant responses
How can this be explained?
controls cell division & differentiation
-growth towards light
asymmetrical distribution of auxin
cells on darker side elongate faster than cells on brighter side (due to auxin accumulation in darker side cells)
Changes in organism behavior due to the length of day or night.
A Flowering Hormone?
seed germination in response to light
flowering responses in "
" and "
Plants have them, too!
Auxin & Apical Dominance
Gibberellin and lots of things
Absisic Acid Prevents Growth
Ethylene is Awesome!
Leaf Absicion is Complex!
Some Major Plant Responses
Production at the
determines the direction of plant growth
treatment leads to "
" in growing plants & accelerated fruit ripening
Intake of water in germinating seeds leads to gibberelin production and the breakdown of stored starch to power
] leads to
is a gas!
It triggers growth
& Fruit Ripening
Increased ethylene is associated with the "
" in young plants, a reaction to encountering an overhead blockage during growth
Ethylene response mutants
(loss of leaves),
involves interactions between many hormones, including ethylene, gibberelin, and absisic acid
to pathogens and herbivores
Plants rely on the production of a wide variety of chemicals that can cause unpleasant effects in would-be pathogens and predators.
Plants have systemic mechanisms to prevent the spread of viral infections
The diversity of chemicals that plants can produce in response to pathogens is remarkable!