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AP Bio- Plant Reproduction and Responses

Plant Reproduction and Responses Unit. Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The Internet.Provided under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
by

Paul Saia

on 27 February 2014

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Transcript of AP Bio- Plant Reproduction and Responses

Plants
Plants
"Alternation of generations"
Asexual Reproduction in Aspen Trees
Sexual Reproduction in orchids
Evolutionary Trends in Plant Reproduction
Many plants reproduce asexually with ease
Most plants require pollination for sexual reproduction
Evolutionary history
Sexual life cycle of an angiosperm
Floral anatomy
Angiosperm gamete production
Pollinator Adaptations
More Pollinator Adaptations
Mechanisms to prevent self-pollination
"Double Fertilization"
Seed Development
Fruit Development
Seed Dispersal mechanisms
Germination
Monocots vs. Dicots
Big Questions:
Make Sure You Can:
How are the reproductive systems of plants adapted for sexual reproduction?

How do the constraints of the environment determine the adaptations in organismal reproductive systems?

How do environmental factors affect hormonal action in plants?

How do hormones help plants coordinate and control their physiology?
Explain how sexual reproduction works in angiosperms.

Label all parts of a typical flower and explain how they contribute to sexual reproduction.

Explain how plant breeding technologies take advantage of the reproductive strategies of particular plants.

Explain how a plants immune system protects it against pathogens and herbivores
Any Questions?
An "idealized"
monoecious
flower.
Many angiosperms produce
dioecious
flowers.
fuse with one pollen sperm to make triploid (3n)
endosperm
tissue for seed (food source)
fuse with other pollen sperm to make diploid
zygote
Creates the
pollen tube
to deliver 2 sperm (from generative cell) to ovule
What separates "sperm" from "egg"?
size & motility (that's it!)
structure & function!
a. dioecious plants have "male" and "female" flowers.



b. arrangement of styles and stamens can prevent self-fertilization (or at least minimize its chances)
Coevolution!
Could there be other mechanisms?
What gets fertilized, and why?
Note: Plant Sex is analogous to Animal Sex (NOT HOMOLOGOUS!!!)
Why seeds?
Why fruit?
What are some of the differences in
monocot
and
dicot
germination?
Learn These!!!

Remember:
Monocots
-
One Cotyledon
Grasses, mostly

Dicots
-
Two Cotyledons
All other Angiosperms
Photo Reponses In Plants
Phototropism
:
Growth in response to a light source.
Mediated by the hormone
auxin
in plants.
How Auxin Works:
Activates proton pumps, which pump H+ into the cell wall.
This activates
expansins
, which elongate the cell wall.
Not all wavelengths of light are created equal in plant responses

How can this be explained?

Effects
controls cell division & differentiation
phototropism
-growth towards light
asymmetrical distribution of auxin
cells on darker side elongate faster than cells on brighter side (due to auxin accumulation in darker side cells)
apical dominance
Photoperiodism
:
Changes in organism behavior due to the length of day or night.
Phytochromes!
A Flowering Hormone?
seed germination in response to light
flowering responses in "
short day
" and "
long day
" plants
Auxin
Plants have them, too!
Hormones
Auxin & Apical Dominance
Gibberellin and lots of things
Absisic Acid Prevents Growth
Ethylene is Awesome!
Leaf Absicion is Complex!
Some Major Plant Responses
Auxin
Production at the
Apical Bud
determines the direction of plant growth
Gibberellin
treatment leads to "
bolting
" in growing plants & accelerated fruit ripening
Intake of water in germinating seeds leads to gibberelin production and the breakdown of stored starch to power
cotyledon
growth
Decreasing [
ABA
] leads to
germination
Ethylene
is a gas!
It triggers growth
& Fruit Ripening
Increased ethylene is associated with the "
triple response
" in young plants, a reaction to encountering an overhead blockage during growth
Leads To
Ethylene response mutants
Abscision
(loss of leaves),
involves interactions between many hormones, including ethylene, gibberelin, and absisic acid
Plant response
to pathogens and herbivores

Plants rely on the production of a wide variety of chemicals that can cause unpleasant effects in would-be pathogens and predators.
Plants have systemic mechanisms to prevent the spread of viral infections
The diversity of chemicals that plants can produce in response to pathogens is remarkable!
Reproduction
Full transcript