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Grade 12 Biology Summative on India

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Ishan Aditya

on 10 May 2013

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Transcript of Grade 12 Biology Summative on India

Social and Economic development:
Developing long term poverty reduction strategies by making growth more inclusive through massive investment in human capital and creating opportunities to tap human resources such as using the unemployed to build rural infrastructure. (Bloom, 2010)
Policy to improve safety of women is required by imposing stricter laws.
Policies are required to absorb workers into productive employment & this is strengthened by:
Good governance & opening avenues for well-functioning institutions
Efficient infrastructure - roads, railways, telecommunications & water supply.
Prudent fiscal & macroeconomic management policies to control inflation
Investments in education and training at all levels of schooling for females & males of all income levels, social status, job training for workers to keep up with new types of services and industries. Recommendations:
Socio-Economic Estimated Daily Food Energy Intake per person in India Food & Soil Population Growth:
Empowerment of women by providing access to better education, economic opportunities, family planning to enhance health & education of their children thereby raising the productive capacity of future generations & curtailing child labour (NSSO, 2005).
Benefit from the demographic dividend by providing an economic environment in which the working age people are productively employed.
Population policy shift from control to development is required for growth.
Fertility Decline:
Promoting fertility decline by:
Expansion of family planning services by being sensitive to reproductive rights.
Promoting infant & child survival by expanding coverage of established & inexpensive vaccines. Recommendations: Population Major Health Issues An irrigation pump supplying water to a farm
Source: www.worldbank.org Management of water has been through a top-down approach and has become a government monopoly.
From 1951 to 2011, gross irrigated areas expanded fourfold, from 23 million hectares to over 90 million hectares. (Shah, 2010)
A ‘supply-side’ approach – exploiting additional water resources – has been predominantly used. This approach has resulted in major economic, social and environmental costs. Efforts to Conserve & Reduce Human Effects on Water Supply “There will be constant competition over water, between farming families and urban dwellers, environmental conservationists and industrialists, minorities living off natural resources and entrepreneurs seeking to commodify the resource base for commercial gain.”
UNICEF 2010, Report on Indian Water Source: www.ithappensinindia.com Water, Air & Waste Management India’s policy goals to ensure sustainable food supply include ensuring remunerative prices to farmers, and maintaining stable prices for consumers. Following actions are being taken: Minimum support prices (MSP) to reflect increases in costs of production & market trends.
Food subsidies for consumers to protect low income consumers from food price increases the Food Corporation of India is selling food grains at subsidized prices by public distribution system.
Regulated markets: Government restrictions on storage & movement of farm produce to be sold by regulated markets.
Input subsidies for producers: fertilizer, electricity, fuel & irrigation are provided at subsidized rates for agriculture.
Trade policy: Government has replaced restrictions on imports of all agricultural products with import tariffs to balance competing producer and consumer interests.
Actions to Ensure a Sustainable Food Supply Source: www.indiatoday.com Source: www.censusindia.gov.in India has uneven population distribution.
India's latitude 22° 00' N and longitude is 77° 00' E .
The three geological regions of India are: (i) the Peninsula, (ii) the Extra-Peninsular region and (iii) the Indo-Gangetic Alluvial Plain. (E.Pascoe, 1931)
Its topography is varied comprising of Himalayas in the North, fertile plains along the river systems , desert region in the east and plateau in the south. Each of these relief feature have influenced the distribution of population. People live along water bodies which support agriculture and industry.
Its population density has increased from 117 persons per sq km in 1951 to 382 persons in 2010
High population densities are in Northern fertile plains & along river valleys which account for 24.6 % of population. Lowest population densities are in the Himalayan region & in the western desert.
India is predominantly rural & 31% (377 million) of the people live in urban areas.
10 urban districts have population densities of more than 12,000 persons per sq. km. Population Distribution Prepared for: Ms. Ameen
Prepared by: Ishan Aditya,
Grade 12 Biology
May 7th, 2013 Source : Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) and Global Footprint Network 2013 Ecological Footprint of an average Indian citizen is low.
India represents 6 % of world’s Ecological Footprint, 4 % of the world’s bio-capacity, & has 17 % of world’s population.
India is depleting its ecological assets in supporting the current economic boom – a doubling of GDP per capita since 2000 and the growth of its population.
This has resulted in bio-capacity decline by 46% indicating that more people are sharing a limited bio-capaity. Carbon Footprint & Bio-capacity Windmills a source a renewable energy
Source: www.timesofindia.com An Open garbage dump
Source: www.timesofindia.com Human impact on other parts of ecosystem:
Solid waste remains unattended at collection centres. Leaching contaminates soil.
Open dumping of garbage facilitates breeding of disease vectors - flies & other pests.
Landfill sites generate methane gas & contribute to global warming.
Measures to reduce impacts on ecosystem
Proper management of solid waste is being initiated
Educating people on different ways of handling waste
Household waste segregation, recycling & reuse
Kyoto Accord
India has not signed the Kyoto protocol but is a member.
India is a developing country & is not bound by targets under the Kyoto Protocol, but is committed to reduce its emissions.
Steps taken by India to reduce emissions are:
Providing support for renewable energy
Improving energy efficiency
Reducing deforestation Ecosystem: Impacts, Measures & Kyoto Accord Community water supply source
Source: www.waterfortheages.com Domestic pollution and water logging
Source: www.worldbank.org Population growth has accentuated the water crisis.
Two-thirds of the population in rural areas & urban slums does not have access to clean water & survive on less than $2 a day. (Shah, 2010).
Environmental problems caused due to population growth include:
Water quality degradation from agro-chemicals.
Industrial & domestic pollution.
Groundwater depletion.
Water logging,
Soil salinisation, siltation, degradation of wetlands, ecosystem impacts.
Various health-related problems such as water borne diseases.

Correlation Between Quality of Life & Environmental Effects of Population on Water Supply A Vegetable Vendor
Source: www.indiatoday.com Food security for all needs to be emphasised by the government through the provision of access to varied nutrient-dense, vegetarian diet.
A national public education effort should be initiated to encourage healthy eating based on vegetarian regional cuisines to advance food security & contain chronic, diet-related conditions like obesity, diabetes, hypertension & cancer.
The government should promote cultivation of foods that provide key nutrients, require less water for cultivation & are resilient to climate change.
Adoption of agricultural policies directed at ensuring food security in rural areas are required as a means of sharing risks & returns, such as cooperatives. Recommendations: Food & Energy India’s Total Arable Land Area
Source: www.brighter-green.com Food crops by cropped area
Source: www.brighter-green.com Per World Bank Report 2010, India’s total arable land area is 60.53% of total land area.
Total land area of India -269,210 sq miles.
Based on my calculations the Total land area under food production (veg. & non veg.) is 30,447.04 sq miles.
Total land area available for use in agriculture and other purposes is 767,872.05 sq miles. The available land is sufficient to meet the population’s nutritional needs using internal resources.
Total Arable Land in India
  Non-vegetarians.: 150 kJ/p.cap/per day Veg. & non-veg.: 20 kJ/p.cap/per day Energy Pyramid for India Fast Food Chain in India
Source: www.hindishows.com Traditional Indian Food Source: www.hindishows.com The diet in India comprises of rice, lentils, yogurt and ghee (fat).
The influence of religion on diet relates to meat consumption. About 40 % Hindus are vegetarians and do not eat beef while Muslims do not eat pork. (FAO, 2011)
Brighter Green Food Policy and Equity Program (2006), found that:
India is no longer a primarily vegetarian country.
This change in food energy consumption pattern is due to crumbling social restrictions on eating non-vegetarian food and globalization
India’s fast-expanding middle class is driving the demand for meat, eggs, & dairy products like ice cream, cheese, & milk. 
Fast food retail chains such as KFC, McDonalds, Subway have customized their products &are a significant presence in metropolises.
Fast food has become an integral part of urban India & serves 15 % of the total population.  Daily Diet of an Average Person Life Support Systems 1. Food & soil Source: www.footprintnetwork.org Source: www.footprintnetwork.org In 2003, India’s Ecological Footprint was 0.8 global hectares per person. This is lower than the world average of 2.2 global hectares .
Natural capital has declined due to population increase which is causing pressure on available resources, croplands and forests are depleting.
Though HDI increased from 0.4 to 0.6 over 30 years but a growing ecological debt and a poor water use management has put this at risk. (NSSO, 2005)
Poorer communities that comprise 70% of the population depend directly on local biocapacity, & are impacted by the productivity of these ecosystems.

Ecological Footprint & its Relationship to Quality of Life Source: www.gurukulam.com Source: www.censusindia.gov.in Employment shows a declining trend (NSS, 2010) as 40 million were reported as being unemployed.
Human Development (HD) index has moved up by 0.174 points, from 0.416 (1975) to 0.590 in 2001. (MHHDC, 2004)
India is a male dominated society where women are discriminated against:
Decline in sex ratio with 927 girls per 1000 boys in 2001 is due to female foeticide. (Premi, 2011)
Domestic violence against women and dowry is common.
Male-female difference in literacy rate is 19.8% in rural areas & 9.8% in urban areas.
Impact of Education on Development in India & Technology
India's economic progress is evident in the fact that 75%  of its population is literate
Over 1 million students each year in Engineering Colleges.
Graduates emerge as entrepreneurs who have built innovative technology companies such as Edtech & TutorVista. Quality of Life Source: United Nations, 2009 Source: World Bank World Development Report 2009 Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita grew at an annual average rate of 6.4% between 1975 to 2005. In 2010, an estimated 300 million persons lived below poverty line.
“Inequality in the distribution of human development - income, health, and education, is distinctly pronounced in India.”(UNDP 2011)
10 % of Indian households with highest incomes consume 31 % of goods & services.
40 % of the population has access to basic amenities.
1/5th of households live in a ‘moderate’ state of deprivation in terms of availability of drinking water, brick house, literacy and access to health services. Source: World Bank World Development Report 2009 Economic & Social Conditions 2050 2010 Population Pyramid for 2010 shows a dominance of younger age group & fewer elderly.
By 2050 the base of India's projected population pyramid shrinks:
The number of working-age persons increases relative to children and the elderly.
Decline in the number of children can be attributed to reduced mortality rates resulting from improvements in healthcare
By 2050 couples may opt for fewer children due to improvements in survival rate.
An increase in the ratio of working-age to non-working-age people is expected to increase per capita income (Bloom, 2010)
Sex ratio at birth in 2010 is 1.12 males for each female is due to sex-selective abortions. Source: United Nations, 2009 Population Pyramids of India Ref: www.prb.org India, has a population of nearly 1.17 billion and occupies 2.4 % of the Earth’s surface area i.e. every 6th person in the world is an Indian. India: Human Demographics Fig shows Utilizable water, demand & available water
Source: World Bank Report on Water In India, 2006 Figure Shows Depleting water resources
Source: World Bank Report on Water In India, 2006 India sources of fresh water are rainfall & snowmelt.
37 % of surface water resources are utilized as:
over 90 % of the annual flow of Himalayan rivers occurs over 4 months
potential to capture such resources is complicated by limited suitable storage reservoirs
India’s seasonal rainfall is unevenly distributed.
India’s water crisis is mainly due to uneven rainfall distribution, limited water reservoirs, pollution caused by poor management, unclear laws, corruption, industrial & human waste.
Domestic, agricultural, & industrial sectors, use approximately 829 billion cubic meters of water yearly. By 2050 demand is expected to exceed 1.4 trillion cubic meters. (World Bank Report, 2006). Supply & Demand for Water: Effect on the Life of the Average Citizen Source: www.brighter-green.com Source: www.brighter-green.com Source: www.brighter-green.com Grains: Daily consumption of grains was 32 grams per person.
Vegetables: Consumption of vegetables is 100 to 120 grams per capita per day which is less than 1/3 of recommended daily intake. (Nutrition Foundation of India, 2008)
Meat: Annual per capita consumption of meat is 3.26 kg. (Nutrition Foundation of India, 2008)
Dairy Products : India is world’s highest consumer of milk. Milk consumption is 250 grams (8 oz) per day. (National Dairy Institute, 2007).
Eggs: In rural areas 15 eggs are consumed, on an average in a year by one person. The average consumption of eggs for a city dweller is 100 eggs per year per person. (State / UT Animal Husbandry Dept, 2010). Food Consumption Source: www.timesofindia.com
Decline in population growth rate is due to:
Declining infant & child mortality rate
Declining fertility rate.
Falling crude birth rate.
Declining death rate.
Increase in life expectancy by 4.6 years is due to increase in per capita income (Duraisamy & Mahal, 2005).
In 2005-2010, life expectancy for females was 65.0 years & for males it was 62.1 years. (The Times of India Oct 2, 2012) Changing Demographic Profile Grassland ecosystem in Kutch Gujarat
Source: Indiatourism.com Coral reef ecosystem in the Indian Ocean
Source: Indiatourism.com Desert ecosystem in Thar desert Rajasthan
Source: Indiatourism.com Island ecosystem in the Andaman islands
Source: Indiatourism.com Forest ecosystem in the northern river plains
Source: Indiatourism.com Mountain ecosystem- Himalaya mountains
Source: Indiatourism.com Wetland ecosystem in River Ganga delta
Source: Indiatourism.com Ecosystems in India can be demarcated by natural habitat & physical characteristics into forests, grasslands, mountains, islands, deserts, wetlands & coral reefs Ecosystems in India In India, water scarcity is an acute crisis.
Millions of Indians lack access to clean drinking water, and the situation is getting worse due to increasing population. (World Resources Institute, 2005)
Water accessibility & portability is another problem. Women walk long distances to fetch water and this affects their lives. Women walk to fetch water
Source: www.ithappensinindia.com Children drawing water using a hand pump
Sources: ithappensinindia.com Domestic water storage in vessels in village mud houses
Sources: ithappensinindia.com Women drawing underground water from a well
Sources: ithappensinindia.com Portable water tanker supplies water
Sources: ithappensinindia.com Sources of Water Supply 1. Population explosion is the root of cause of poverty, inequitable distribution of resources & basic amenities.
2. Ecological assets are depleting in supporting the current economic boom & population. This has resulted in bio-capacity decline by 46% indicating that more people are sharing a limited bio-capacity.
3. Rural urban migration has resulted in population densities of more than 12,000 persons per sq. km in metropolises
4. Limited or no access to basic amenities such as health care, water supply & sanitation for 80% of population.
5. Malnutrition amongst children & micro nutrient deficiencies among millions are due to low vegetable & fruit consumption.
6. Women are discriminated against. Female foeticide has resulted in sex ratio of 927 girls per 1000 boys in 2001. Other issues are domestic violence and dowry.
7. Waterborne diseases are common due to infected water.
8. Environmental problems due to population growth are: Water quality degradation, groundwater depletion & water logging.
9. Solid waste remains unattended at poorly maintained collection centres.
Open defecation is common due to low awareness of hygiene & affordability.
10. Unequal distribution of healthcare resources & a dominance of private health care negatively impacts the socially disadvantaged population. Summary of Problems FAO, Global and Regional Food Consumption Patterns and Trends, 2005, http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/AC911E/ac911e05.htm
Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. National Family Health Survey,2005-2006. Fact sheet available at http://hetv.org/india/nfhs/nfhs3/NFHS-3-IN.pdf
International Water Management Institute, 2005, Spatial Variation in Water Supply and Demand across River Basins of India - Research Paper 83 , Colombo
Kurian, N.J. (2007). “Widening economic & social disparities: Implications for India”. Indian Journal of Medical Research, October. 374-380
Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, 1998, India Nutrition Profile 2008. New Delhi, Department of Women and Child Development. New Delhi.
National Sample Survey Organisation, 2005, 60th round "Morbidity and Health care," Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, March Report 507
Pascoe E. 1931, "A sketch of the geology of India", Himalayan Journal
Premi, M.K. "Population of India, 2011", B.R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi2012Ranjhan, S. K. “Indian Meat Industry Perspective.” New Delhi: Hind Agro Industries Limited, 2007.
Ranjhan, S. K. “Indian Meat Industry Perspective.” New Delhi: Hind Agro Industries Limited, 2007.
Sinha, K. "Average Indian’s life expectancy up 4.6 years", The Times of India, Oct 2, 2012 References 6. Techniques of watershed management, rainwater harvesting, desalination, filtration, river-interlinking, effluent treatment & sewage treatment need to be adopted to reduce water pollution in India.
7. To promote sanitation, municipal policies to include management of solid waste by involving public in plans for waste treatment & disposal.
8. Providing community accessible toilets and educating the public on personal & environmental benefits of hygiene.
9. Providing access to well equipped health centres in rural areas by making it mandatory for health care professionals to serve the under-served communities.
10. Increasing taxes on luxury goods and reducing levies on basic consumer goods to make them accessible to lower income groups will lead to a more equitable distribution of wealth and resources.
11. Setting cooperative to provide financial assistance to farmers so that they use innovative techniques such as double cropping to increase yields & serve the growing population.
12. Per my calculations, total land area available for use in agriculture and other purposes is 767,872.05 sq miles. The available land is sufficient to meet the population’s nutritional needs using internal resources. Subsidies need to be provided to farmers in order to improve agricultural practices and increase production. Plan to Resolve Problems 1. Provide free meals in schools to induce parents to educate their children thereby investing in human capital for future benefits which will be reflected in reduction of malnutrition and, disease as well as a preparing a better educated workforce.
2. Empower women by providing access to better education. Initiating community based programs to educate women on benefits of family planning & providing access to health care facilities.
3. Providing low-interest loans to women in rural areas to enable them to set up businesses and gain economic independence.
4. Setting up small scale industries with localised resources to create employment in rural areas, such as making fly ash bricks using a by-product of coal combustion, making bio gas from rice husks, Jatropa oil from local succulents.
5. Providing basic amenities such as schools, community toilets, wells, portable water sources, and community centres in rural areas. To encourage rural communities to develop and become self sufficient in order to discourage migration to urban areas.
.........continued Plan to Resolve Problems Manmade reservoirs are required to mitigate the water crisis.
A view of Mata Tila dam in Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India Water crisis is man-made & storage reservoirs by creating dams on rivers are required to provide water during dry season.
Implementation of policies is required to reduce over pumping to mitigate ground water pollution, water logging & increase salinity.
Techniques of watershed management, rainwater harvesting, desalination, filtration, river-interlinking, effluent treatment & sewage treatment need to be adopted to reduce water pollution in India.
To promote sanitation, municipal policies to include management of solid waste and:
Involve public in plans for waste treatment & disposal.
Secure sites & set up facilities for appropriate hazardous waste management. Recommendations:
Water Supply & Sanitation 18% to 19 % rural households have a toilet. Open defecation is common due to :
Low awareness of benefits of hygiene.
Perceived costs of toilets.
75% to 81 % urban households have toilets.
Of the total waste water generated in metropolises about 30 % is treated before disposal. This contaminates freshwater sources such as rivers, lakes & groundwater.
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation has increased due to rapid population growth.
Substantial part of MSW generated remains unattended and has become a major environmental issue. Sanitation Coverage Planning Commission of India, (2010) Report on "Water, Air and Waste Management" http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/genrep/wtrsani.pdf
United Nations (2009). World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. United Nations, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
United Nations Development Program (2011). Inequality adjusted - Human development Index for India's States, UNDP, New Delhi
United States Bureau of the Census, “International Data Base”. Available at http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/
United States Central Intelligence Agency (2010). “The World Factbook.” Available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
Weil, David (2007). "Accounting for the Effect of Health on Economic Growth." Quarterly Journal of Economics 122(3): 1265-1306.
WHO (2010). “WHO and UNICEF estimates of national immunization coverage, 2 July 2010.” Geneva: World Health Organization, available from <http://www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/data/ind.pdf>.
Yadav, Yogendra and Sanjay Kumar. “The Food Habits of a Nation,” The Hindu, August 14, 2006. References Annepu R K, Jan 2012, “Sustainable Solid Waste Management in India”, Columbia University, New York
Bloom, David E., David Canning, and Larry Rosenberg (2010). “Demographic Change and Economic Growth in South Asia”. Paper prepared for The World Bank.
Brighter Green 2011, "Veg or Non Veg, India at the Crossroads", www.brightergreen.org/files/india_bg_pp_2011.pdf‎
Chandrasekhar, C.P., Ghosh J, and Roychowdhury A (2006). “The ‘Demographic Dividend’ and Young India’s Economic Future”. Economic and Political Weekly, Dec. 9. Vol. 41, No. 49. 5055-5064.
Census of India, 2011, India Population Totals, Paper 1 , Series 1,New Delhi: Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India
Centers for Disease and Control. (2009). Solid Waste. Retrieved July 16, from http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/NALBOH/NALBOH-4.pdf
Central Pollution Control Board, 2005. New Delhi, Status of Sewage treatment in India
Confederation of Indian Industry, "India's Ecological Footprint: A Business Perspective", www.footprintnetwork.org/download.php?id=504‎
Duraisamy, P., and A. Mahal (2005). “Health, poverty and economic growth in India”. In Health Systems in India: Delivery and Financing of Services, National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, pp. 1-14, 2005. References Source: www.censusindia.gov.in Diseases such as dengue fever, hepatitis, tuberculosis, & pneumonia are common due to unhygienic conditions , lack of adequate & accessible medical facilities.
Diarrheal diseases are the primary cause of early childhood mortality.
Other food or waterborne diseases include hepatitis A and B, jaundice & typhoid fever.
Vector borne diseases are chikungunya, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis & malaria.
India also has the world's highest incidence of rabies is cased due to animal contact.
There is high risk for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. This may be attributed to a genetic predisposition to metabolic syndrome and adverse changes in coronary artery vasodilation.
India has 5.7 million HIV infected persons & is ranked 3rd amongst countries with a high rate of HIV. Endemic Diseases Public Health Center in India
Source: www.asianfootprint.com Many public hospitals including Public Health Centres are:
Ill-equipped in terms of staff, physical infrastructure & medicines.
Burdened by patients who are poor & cannot afford private hospitals.
20 % of hospital beds are located in rural areas.
National Sample Survey (NSS) found that the average cost of treatment in the private sector for rural in-patients is 2.1 times higher, and for urban in-patients 2.4 times higher than the public sector in 2005-06.
NSS survey found 20% of the poor do not avail treatment due to financial reasons.
Medical Advances:
2012 India was polio-free for the first time. This was achieved because of Pulse Polio Programme started in 1995-96 by the government
National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) health program for improving health care delivery across rural India. The mission, including training local residents as Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA). Medical Technology Available to the Average Citizen The country spends 0.9 % of GDP on health care. This is below the average of low-income countries.
More than 75% of healthcare spending is paid privately.
Duraisamy and Mahal (2005) find “a strong association between per capita income & health status of population.”
Indians are split into two groups in terms of access to healthcare:
The middle and upper classes, living in the urban areas have access to quality medical care.
A large segment of rural populations lives below the poverty line in rural areas and has extremely limited access to medical care. Most rely on homeopathic or cultural remedies.
Healthcare industry lacks a medically insured population and consequently there is high out-of-pocket expenditure (71.13%, Census of India, 2010). Healthcare for the Average Citizen Source: livemint.com

Health Care and Medical Advances Source: www.censusindia.gov.in Malnutrition
42% of children are malnourished, which impacts their cognitive development.
High infant mortality rate
1.72 million infants die each year due to lack of immunization. Only 43.5% children are immunized. Diarrheal and respiratory infections contribute to infant mortality
Dengue fever, hepatitis, tuberculosis, malaria and pneumonia are common due to increased resistance to drugs.
Poor sanitation
122 million households have no toilets & open defecation is common. This spreads diseases through parasitic & bacterial infections.
Inadequate safe drinking water
Access to protected sources of drinking water is scarce:
25% of the total population has drinking water on their premises.
Unhygienic conditions around water sources, groundwater pollution,
excessive arsenic and fluoride in drinking water threaten India's health.
Rural health
Rural India contains over 68% of total population. Unfortunately half of the population is living below poverty line & struggling for access to health care. Major Health Issues Informal waste collection
http://envis.maharashtra.gov.in Waste Management is done by:
Composting plants & Sanitary landfills
Open burning of solid wastes and landfill fires.
These emit pollutants into the air such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), Hydrocarbons (HC), Particulate Matter (PM), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) & Sulfur Dioxide (SO2).
Open burning emissions increase direct exposure to humans.
Informal collection of recyclables saves money for municipalities & prevents the emission of carbon dioxide
Informal recycling employs waste pickers for door-to-door collection of wastes, & allows them to sell the recyclables collected.
Such a system diverts 95% of MSW from land fills
This helps to decrease disease & improve the quality of life Solid, Liquid & Atmospheric Waste Management Number of Doctors in Private & Public Sector
Source: www.censusindia.gov.in Unequal distribution of healthcare resources, access to health care & a dominance of private sector negatively impacts 80% of the socially disadvantaged population.
Health services for the affluent are urban biased & are characterised by profitability.
The increasing cost of healthcare that is paid ‘out of pocket’ which makes healthcare unaffordable for increasing number of people.
The poor are unable to afford and access hospitalization during illness. A single incident of hospitalization costs the average family 60 % of its annual income
Effect of Health Care Resources on Quality of Life Solar Panels
Source: www.asianfootprint.com Soil pits for biogas generation
Source: www.asianfootprint.com Electronic scooters
Source: www.asianfootprint.com Following measures are recommended to reduce the ecological footprint & increase bio-capacity:
Protecting marine wealth within the 200 mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
Using fuel efficient cars & electric scooters in cities.
Generating biodiesel from Jatropha (an oil-producing succulent).
Bio-capacity is preserved by safeguarding river basins & forests.
Soil Pits for livestock waste management are dug with partial ventilation for production of biogas to control methane load.
Renewable energy sources such as solar energy are being used.
Gasification represents a new innovation in the energy sector, allowing the conversion of rice husks into carbon monoxide and hydrogen through use of heat, pressure, and steam. Products of gasification include syngas product which is an energy fuel. Recommendations to Reduce Impact on Ecological Footprint & Bio-capacity Source: www.indiatoday.com Source: www.indiatoday.com Promoting Healthcare:
Creating opportunities for investing in health to stimulate development
Training & extensive deployment of medical & public health professionals
Increase the availability of health care professional by promoting medical education
Promoting improvement & ubiquitous distribution of health care infrastructure
Medical insurance to be promoted to curtail out-of-pocket expenditure.
Promoting infant & child survival by making medicines & vaccines available.
Making rural medical service a mandatory practice for all practicing medical professionals. Recommendations: Health Care Introduction India: A Study of Population & Sustainability Population: 2010 Population: 2050 Average Cases in 1 Day 2. Water, Air & Waste Management 3. Health care & Medical Advances Vegetarians.: 20 kJ/p.cap/per day Non-vegetarians.:55 kJp.cap/per day Vegetarians.: 50 kJ/p.cap/per day Vegetarians & non-veg.: 200 kj/p.cap/per day The main topics covered include:
Human Demographics
Life Support Systems
Food and Soil
Water, Air, and Waste Management
Health Care and Medical Advances
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