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Using Reciprocal Teaching in Mathematics

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Beth Hunt

on 27 July 2015

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Transcript of Using Reciprocal Teaching in Mathematics

What is Reciprocal Teaching?
Designed for Reading Comprehension.
Students work together in small groups or whole class to construct meaning and understanding of text.
Where We Go From Here...
Math PLC teams will be meeting to determine which strategies we are going to implement as a building.
Role Cards, Anchor Charts, and Graphic Organizers will be developed to utilize with students as we teach them the strategies of reciprocal teaching.
Share the resources with the entire staff so that other content areas can support the development of these skills in other content areas as well as support math when assisting students with homework or during tutoring.
Utilize in our math classrooms for set time and then meet back as a Math PLC to see what improvements can be made to resources.

The Facts...
Why are Math
Word Problems so Difficult for Students?
Language of Mathematics
Comprehension of the language of mathematics and how it relates to various operations.
Differences in sentence structure
Not always a one-to-one correspondence between math symbols and words in English.
Vocabulary level.
Distractors or unnecessary information
The order of the information does not reflect the order of mathematical operations.
Why use Reciprocal Teaching in Math?
Provides structure for problem-solving.
Teaching students critical thinking skills such as predicting, summarizing, questioning, & clarifying which are essential in all content areas.
Encourages talking about the math and how they solved the problem.
Helps students to see there are multiple approaches to solving problems.
Tradition Reciprocal Teaching has four strategies but some have modified those for math problems.
Predicting
Clarifying
Generating Questions
Summarizing
Using Reciprocal Teaching in Mathematics

Keys to
Reciprocal Teaching
Modeling:
Teacher models how to do each skill multiple times providing "think alouds" so that students can understanding how to formulate their questions.
Shared Leadership:
As students become more skilled, the teacher steps back and allows the students to lead discussions.
Reciprocal Teaching
4 Strategies to Use When Reading the Text
Predicting
Clarifying
Identify areas of uncertainty.
Unfamiliar vocabulary
Unfamiliar text structures
New and difficult concepts
Students are encouraged to fix the areas of uncertainty and then reread the text for meaning.
Questioning
Identify key components of the text
Design and generate questions about what the students have read.
More actively engaging than just answering teacher questions.
Allows self-monitor of student's own comprehension.

Summarizing
Integrating important information from the text.
Students anticipate what will happen next.
Helps to provide motivation to continue reading.
Fifth Grade
Math MAP Data
2012 - 2014
Sixth Grade
Math MAP Data
2012 - 2014
Our Students
High percentage of our students are reading below grade level.
High percentage of our students are English Language Learners (ELL) and high number of Bilingual students.
High percentage of our students are Kids from Poverty -- high number of free & reduced lunches

Common Core & New Assessments
80% of math on the state assessment will be math embedded in content
(Word Problems)
20% of Math assessment will be Computation where students are just given an equation to solve.
Students will be asked to problem solve and perform at higher DOK level than just recall.
In Mathematics
Most can perform mathematical operations but struggle with problem solving and application of those skills in real-world situations.
Not mathematically literate.

Data retrieved on July 26, 2015 from http://mcds.dese.mo.gov/quickfacts/SitePages/DistrictInfo.aspx?ID=__bk8100030073003300130003008300
Data retrieved on July 26, 2015 from http://mcds.dese.mo.gov/quickfacts/SitePages/DistrictInfo.aspx?ID=__bk8100030073003300130003008300
What is Math Literacy?
Math literacy (also known as numeracy) means having the ability to problem-solve, reason and analyze information.
It is the ability to use numbers to help solve real-world problems.
It is also the ability to understand the “language” of math (for example “sum” means an answer to addition, “difference” means the answer to a subtraction question).
- See more at: http://www.oxfordlearning.com/2010/05/05/what-does-math-literacy-mean/#sthash.MOXEm2ar.dpuf
Research Says...
about Reciprocal Teaching
Equally effective for students if modeled by the teacher or by peers.
Provides structure and support to ELLs and special need students because it provides vocabulary and content to talk about math.
Students will use strategies in other learning and content.
Skills can be easily taught to students, teachers, and parents.
Most effective with small group instruction and cooperative learning strategies.
Students gain an understanding of how to complete complex tasks.
Lowers Math Anxiety and increase students' confidence in their abilities.
Students using Reciprocal Teaching answered 75% of problems correct rather 33% correct for students not using the strategy.
Ability to explain their solution and apply similiar strategies in new situations.
Continue to use the skills independently.
Empowers students.
Accountable for their own learning.
Students typically worked at a higher levels because they know the expectation is “to look below the surface and applying problem solving skills”

Research Says...
about Reciprocal Teaching in Math
Implementing
Reciprocal Teaching
in Math
Reciprocal Teaching Resources from Kylie Meyer.
4 Strategy Approach - van Garderen
Clarifying:
Vocabulary or phrases that need to be clarified.
Questions:
Identify the key parts of the problem
Summarizes:
Purpose of the word problem. What are they solving for?
Planning:
The group develops a plan of the steps and operations needed to solve the problem.
Modified 4 Strategy Approach - Reilly
Predicting:
What type of mathematical question are they being asked? What type of operations might they need to use? What might the answer look like?
Clarifying:
What words are they unfamiliar with? What are the facts they know? What information do you still need to solve the problem?
Solving:
Students develop a solution using a problem solving strategy. Student are required to show their work.
Summarizing:
Students are required to justify their answer and evaluate the success of the plan for solving the problem. How they contributed to the group task?
Predicting
: What do you think this problem is about? What operations do you think will be involved?
Clarifying:
Are there any words or symbols or terms you are unsure of? What information is needed to solve the problem?
Connecting:
Do this remind of any other math problem? How have you solved similar problems in the past?
Visualizing:
Can you draw a picture, diagram, table, or other representation to help you solve the problem?

8 Strategy Approach
Questioning:
Does anyone have any questions about the problem? What is it asking us to do? What do we need to do first? Next?
Calculating:
To solve the problem and show all their work. Re-read the problem and check for reasonableness of their answers.
Summarizing:
What was it asking and how did they go about solving it? Give evidence from the problem to justify your calculations. Explain the problem solving strategies they used to solve the problem.
Giving Feedback:
Reflect on the group's participation. What worked well? What could be improved?
Modification and Supports
Role Cards which describes the steps for the leader of the group.
Graphic Organizers for the students to fill in as they work.
Use of highlighters and other visual aids.
Development of Anchor charts
Cue Words for Operations.
Questions that should be asked
Sentences Stems for Math Conversations.
Reading problems aloud as a whole group rather than individually.
Reciprocal
Teaching Strategies - Parent
Beth Hunt
Neosho Middle School
July 26, 2015
References
Carter, Carolyn J. (1997, March) Why Reciprocal Teaching?. How Children Learn, 54(6), 64-68. Retrieved July 13, 2015 from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar97/vol54/num06/Why-Reciprocal-Teaching%C2%A2.aspx
Dell'Olio, J. M., & Donk, T. (2007). Models of teaching: Connecting student learning with standards. Sage Publications.
District Report Card. (2015, July 26). Retrieved July 26, 2015, from
http://mcds.dese.mo.gov/guidedinquiry/School Report Card/District Report
Card.aspx?rp:SchoolYear=2014&rp:SchoolYear=2013&rp:SchoolYear=2012&rp:SchoolYear=2011&rp:DistrictCode=073108#P24be505a5835415f9e767e3fadc1392f_3_xA

Garderen, D. V. (2004). Focus on inclusion reciprocal teaching as a comprehension strategy for understanding mathematical word problems.Reading & Writing Quarterly, 20(2), 225-229. Retrieved July 25, 2015, from http://futurescholars.rutgers.edu/FutureScholars/Images/Focus%20on%20Inclusion.pdf
Meyer, K. (2014). Making meaning in mathematics problem solving using the Reciprocal Teaching approach. Literacy Learning: The Middle Years, 22(2), 7-14.Retrieved July 25, 2015, from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/75741/
Meyer, K. (2015) Reciprocal Teaching in Math Interactive Notebook Pages. Retrieved July 26, 2015, from https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/product/reciprocal-teaching-in-math-interactive-notebook-pages-1077385

Meyer, K. (2015) Reciprocal Teaching in Math role cards with mini graphic organisers. Retrieved July 26, 2015, from https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/product/reciprocal-teaching-in-math-role-cards-with-mini-graphic-organisers-1068395
Meyer, K. (2013) Ripper Reading Resources - Rigorous Teaching Resources for Higher Order Thinking: Reciprocal Teaching in English and Mathematics. Retrieved July 26, 2015, from http://ripperresources.blogspot.com.au/2014/01/reciprocal-teaching.html
Reciprocal Teaching - An Introduction for Students. Retrieved July 26, 2015, from

Reciprocal Teaching Math Lara Parent. Retrieved July 26, 2015, from

Reilly, Y., Parsons, J., & Bortolot, E. (2009). Reciprocal teaching in mathematics. Mathematics of prime importance, 8. Retrieved on July 25, 2015, from http://www.aucklandmaths.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Reciprocal-teaching-in-Mathematics.pdf
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