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Keshara Perera

on 11 September 2012

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Transcript of Copy of EPIGENETICS

Environmental Factors Don't want to age as fast? Click here.
Care for a little obesity? Just mark "yes" or "no" with a No. 2 pencil. How much is at stake in your dietary choices?
Perhaps more than you think, given the nutritional factors involved in epigenetic change. This program supports the examination of several aspects of epigenetic regulation, from imprinting, to DNA methylation at promoter or other sites, to chromatin modifications, to gene silencing induced by siRNA, and other novel epigenetic mechanisms, for a role in disease and dysfunction with an environmental exposure component. State-of-the-art technologies are being employed to analyze the epigenetic changes in single genes, signaling pathways or the entire genome in response to exposure. Investigators are using in vivo animal models, in vitro cell cultures, human tissues and/or biologic samples to examine epigenetic changes and to determine the precise mechanism responsible for the change. Cancer Unlike regular cells that die cancer calls do not experience "death" but contiune to grow and divide. Cancer is a gentic disease initiated by alterations in genes.
Specifically four types of genes which are:
Oncogenes genes
Tumor suppressor genes
Suicide genes
DNA- repair genes Carcinogens Carcinogens are a class of substances that are responsible for damaging DNA, promoting and aiding cancer. Classes of Cancer There are five groups used to classify cancer:
1.) Carcinoma
2.) Sarcoma
3.) Lymphma
4.) Leukemia
5.) Adenoma How cancer is diagnosed and staged What is Cancer How is cancer currently treated Surgery
Hormone therapy
Gene therapy X-Rays
CT scans
MRI scans
PET scans
Ultrasound TNM system
M(0-1) A TURNING POINT FOR SCEINCE: Unlocking the mystery of Cancer..... EPIGENETICS & CANCER Epigenetic tags are tags that are attached to your DNA. These tags are stripped off the genes during fertilization though some tags may remain and become hereditary.
Having an unhealthy diet can also cause some methyl groups to attach to the wrong site creating mistakes and leading to diseases or cancer. Epigenome = above genetics The study of heritable changes that occur without a change in the DNA sequence. Within cells, there are three systems that can interact with each other to silence genes: RNA can also turn off genes by triggering histone modifications and DNA methylation. DNA methylation is a chemical process that adds a methyl group to DNA.
Inserting methyl groups changes the appearance and structure of DNA.
DNA methylation Histones are proteins that are the primary components of chromatin. When histones are modified they can influence how chromatin is arranged.
If chromatin is not in a compact form -it is active and the associated DNA can be transcribed.
If chromatin is condensed, then it is inactive, and DNA transcription does not occur.
There are two main ways histones can be modified: acetylation and methylation.
Histone modification Epigenetic change in the womb. Epigenetics behind the scene Nurture vs. Nature Twins are genetically identical, but epigentically different. Epigenetic changes are seen in many aging-related diseases like cancer and diabetes. Regenerative medicine (cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr
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