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PAST PERFECT

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by

Kristina Radzevič

on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of PAST PERFECT

PAST PERFECT
USE
For an action which began before the time of speaking in the past, and was still continuing at that time.
USE
For an action which began before the time of speaking in the past and stopped at that time or just before it.

USE
Affirmative form
Subject + Auxiliary + Past Participle
You
had studied
English before you moved to New York.
They
had met
him before he became famous.
She
had lived
here for three years by the time we met.
Negative form
Subject + Auxiliary + not + Past Participle
You
had not studied
English before you moved to New York.
I
had not eaten
at that restaurant before today.
She
had not driven
a car before then.

You
had never studied
English before you moved to New York.
I
had never eaten
at that restaurant before today.
He
had never driven
a car before then.
Interrogative form
Subject + Auxiliary + Past Participle + ?

Had
you
studied
English before you moved to New York?

Had
you
cleaned
up the mess by the time they came home?

Had
Adam ever
spoken
to the CEO before he was fired?
Negative - Interrogative form
Auxiliary + not + Subject + Past Participle + ?

Had not
you
studied
English before you moved to New York?

Had not
you
cleaned
up the mess by the time they came home?

Had not
Adam ever
spoken
to the CEO before he was fired?
Bill was in uniform when I met him. He
had been
a soldier for ten years/since he was seventeen, and planned to stay in the army till he was thirty.
The old oak tree, which
had stood
in the churchyard since before the church was built, suddenly crashed to the ground.
Peter, who
had waited
for an hour/since ten o'clock, was very angry with his sister when she eventually turned up.
USE
Past Perfect = Present Perfect
Present: I've lost my case.
Past:
He
had lost
his case and had to borrow Tom's pyjamas.
Present: Ann has just left. If you hurry you'll catch her.
Past:
When I arrived Ann
had
just
left
.
USE
Past Perfect is not restricted to actions whose time is not mentioned.

He
had left
his case on the 4.40 train.
He
had served
in the army for ten years; then he retired and married. His children were now at school.
For an action which stopped some time before the time of speaking.

USE
Past Perfect = Past Simple

Tom was 23 when our story begins. His father
had died
five years before and since then Tom
had lived
alone. His father
had advised
him not to get married till he was 35, and Tom intended to follow this advice.
He served in the army for ten years: then retired and married. His children are now at school.
Tom's father died when Tom was eighteen. Before he died he advised Tom not to marry till he was 35, and Tom at 23 still intended to follow this advice.
USE
Past Perfect tenses in
time clauses
1. After
when
to emphasize the first action.
2. With
as soon as, the moment, immediately
.
3. With
till/until
and
before
.
When
he
had shut
the window we opened the door of the cage.

When
she
had sung
her song she sat down.


1. After
when
He refused to go
till
he
had seen
all the pictures.
He did wit wait
till
we
had finished
our meal.

Before
we
had finished
our meal he ordered us hack to work.
Before
we
had walked
ten miles he complained of sore feet.

2. With
till/until
and
before
USE
Past Perfect in
indirect speech
1. Present Perfect ->> Past Perfect.
2. Past Simple ->> Past Perfect.
He said, 'I've been in England for ten years' = He said that he
had been
in England for fen years.

She said, 'I'll lend you the book as soon as I have read it myself = She said she'd lend me the book as soon as she
had read
it herself.

He said, 'I knew her well' = He said that he
had known
her well.
FORM
Present Perfect ->> Past Perfect
Past Simple ->> Past Perfect
USE
Conditional sentences type 3
If I
had known
that you were coming I would have met you at the airport. (But I didn't know, so I didn't come.)
If he
had tried
to leave the country he would have been stopped at the frontier. (But he didn't try.)

Kristina Radzevič
2013
VU UKI English-Russian
Full transcript