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Transcript of alphabet book
Patrick O'Donnell Chapter 14 Alphabet Book D is for Department Store K is for Knights of Labor H is for Henry Ford Henry Ford was an American manufacturer made the automobile available to millions. Ford introduced the assembly line in 1913. The assembly line is a manufacturing method in which a product is put together as it put together as it moves along a belt A is for assembly line B is for Bell, Alexander Graham
Alexander was born in 1847, in Edinburgh, Scotland. When he was an adult, Alexander than moved to the United States of America and settled in Boston. In 1876, Bell invented the first telephone. News about the telephone spread quickly through out the country. This invention was was used mainly for business. An assembly line is a place where a product is put together as it moves down the assembly line. The assembly line was used by Henry Ford to make the worlds first mass production car. He used it so he could fill the demands for an american mass production car the Ford Model - T. C is for Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish - American industrialist who led to the massive growth of the American steel industry. He became rich and famous because of this. But he gave most of his money to charity and other causes and only gave 1 million to his children. E is Edison, Thomas Rockefeller was one of the most hated and admired figures of his time. At age 23, he invested in his first oil refinery. He used the profits to buy other oil companies. He was the kind of guy who did not hesitate to crush competitors, slashing prices to drive rivals out of business. In 1882, Rockefeller ended competition in the oil industry by forming the Standard Oil Trust. Other industries then followed his idea. A department store is a place where people can find multiple goods such as clothing, food, and furniture and several other goods. Department stores such as Sears have be around since the early 1900's. Most people found them very useful because they could get different things at one place instead of going to multiple places. In 1882, Edison opened the nations first electric power plant in New York. This helped power his other invention, the light bulb. The power plants helped supply the electricity that lit up homes, powered streetcars, and enabled factories to replace steam engines with safer electric engines. F Is for Free Enterprise G is for George Eastman George Eastman introduced a lightweight camera in 1888. This invention replaced hundreds of pounds of pounds of chemicals and equipment. The price of this invention was so low that ordinary people could record their lives on film. I is for Industry exploited workers During the second industrial revolution people who worked in factories were not covered with insurance by there. If you got hurt you were on your own. Safety in factories was poor or did not exist. One out of several accidents was the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. The fire was the worst industrial accident in American history. More than 146 young female workers died in the fire. This caused organizations such as the Knights of Labor to be formed. The threat of losing free enterprise was very great during the 1900s because large industrial companies were destroying any new business. That destroyed free enterprise because the larger business would lower the prices so little that the smaller company went broke. Large companies also had the advantage because of social Darwinism or people would buy the most successful product do to society. J is for John D. Rockefeller Both Knights of Labor and the AFL were both leading the union in the country. Both of these groups had a lot of people because the Knights of Labor had women, African Americans, immigrants, and unskilled workers and the AFL had millions of skilled workers. R is for Railroads Railroads were a a very common way of getting around in cities. Railroads were produced by the trillions during the second industrial revolution. They also were underground railroads or subways. The first subway was convenient but not safe coal powered trains were used. The fumes from the coal were toxic and train operators often passed out or suffocated from the fumes. Electric and diesel trains were developed and were much saffer and faster. Z is for Zones of Emergence W is for Wright, Wilbur, and Orville Wilbur and Orville were the first to test a gas-powered airplane at Kitty Hawk, Carolina. Their first flight was stayed in air for 12 seconds and flew 120 feet. Surprisingly, the first flights did not attract people. Planes did not become clear until World War 1. S is for Sweatshops M is for Matzeliger Jan E X is for Extraordinary Reformers One of the groups of extraordinary reformers was the National child labor committee both men and woman were worried about children and them working for labor. Edgar Garden Murphy was the developer of The National Committee of Child Labor. It was developed to help children who were malnutritioned U is for Urbanization Urbanization is the rapid growth of city population. The urbanization during second industrial revolution was tremendous. People who immigrated cause this because they were immigrating by the masses. V is for Vanderbilt, Cornelius He began a ferry business in New York with one boat. He then started his own steam boat company, eventually controlling the Hudson River traffic. He also provided the first railroad service between New York and Chicago. T is for Trusts Q is for Quality of Life in Tenements L is for Labor Unions Labor unions were developed after the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. The Knight of labor protested violently in riots and later vanished. But there were peaceful labor unions like the AFL or the American Federation of Labor. The AFL would use collective barging or they would negotiate with mangament Matzeliger was the inventor of the shoes last or a tool used o help fit a person into a shoe. The process started when the shoemaker got the mold of the persons foot then they would duplicate the measurements obtained from the persons foot. N is for Need to reform America had the need to reform because the owners of factories did not have any safety standards or had a poor standards. This caused many people to protest after accidents such as the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. Also the idea of free enterprise was being threaten by monopolies and Social Darwinism or the belief that the rich were rich and the poor were poor. These were some of the things that America at that time need to talk about. O is for Oil The first oil strike was on the day of August 27 1859 in Titusville Pennsylvania. This would result in a multi-billion dollar industry. Oil was used in cars and airplanes in the early 1900s. they would pump oil deep into the earth to the surface. Oil is sometimes mentioned as "black gold" Because the price of oil skyrocketed form 1859 to the present day. P is for people working in the mines. Working in the mines were dangerous. Miners came down with lung diseases because they were breathing in fibers and dust. Steelworkers risked burns and death from vats of molten metal. Fire safety was a issue back then Employers kept their doors locked in sweatshops because they wanted their workers to be working. The quality of life in tenements was poor up to ten people lived in on small cramped apartment. They shared a single bathroom with several families. People often got sick very fast and caught disease such as cholera. Trash covered slum streets and helped disease spread. Sweatshops were you worked 24/7 and get almost no pay and if you were hurt the company or business was not responsible. There was no safety precautions and in sweatshops such as the Triangle Shirtwaist sweatshop. There was a fire that broke out and many workers were killed and caused many peope to from labor unions. A trust is when a person puts money in a bank and allows the bank too use it for investments. Trust were considered helpful but dangerous because once the money was put in you could never get it back. Trust were considered a threat to free enterprise or capitalism because the were very similar to monopolies. Y is for Yellow Journalism Yellow Journalism is to describe the sensational reporting style. One example of this is The Yellow Kid, a tough but sweet slum boy, became the first popular American comic strip character. The New York World became known for sensational headlines that screamed of crime and scandal. One of the ways they developed was by inventors. One of the inventors Thomas Edison invented the light bulb for extra daylight for work and leisure. Another way they developed was by building cities. These skyscrapers helped calm urbanization from getting out of control. Finally they helped immigrants become American citizens by assimilation. This was the process of becoming part of another culture. Thank you for watching