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Transcript of APUSH Project
Grant Mills Economics Reganomics The theory of Reganomics, also known as supply side economics, was that if the wealthy were given tax cuts, then they would reinvest this money into expanding business and private investment, thereby stimulating the economy. 80's Technology 1980: Hepatitis-B vacine invented 1981: IBM creates first PC.
Scanning tunnel Microscope invented. 1982: Human growth hormone genetically engineered. 1983: Soft bifocal conact lens invented.
Programmer Jaron Lanier coins term "virtual reality". 1984: CD-ROM invented.
Apple Macintosh created. 1985: Windows program created by Microsoft. 1986: High temperature super conductor invented by Karl A. Meuller.
Synthetic skin invented by Gregory Gallico.
Fujii introduces the first disposable camera. 1987: The first 3-D video game invented.
First disposable contacts made. 1988: Digital cellphone invented.
Abortion pill invented.
Doppler Radar invented by Christian Andreas Doppler.
Prozac invented at the Eli Lilly Company.
First patent for genetically engineered animal tissue.
Indiglo lighting for watches invented. 1989: HD TV invented. Technology in the 80's revolved around helping the general public with better ways of communication and enhancing entertainment. Also, many new ideas were patented in this era, showing how the 80's were the starting point for newer inventions and ideas. Overall, the 80's marked the beginning of a time period which seemingly impossible ideas were released and used by the general public, showing how modern technology began in the 80's. Overview 80's Politics Ronald Reagan served as president after Jimmy Carter. Reagan was president from 1981 to 1989 and was succeeded by George H. W. Bush in 1989 Legislation during the 80's •August 13, 1981: Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981
•September 3, 1982: Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982
•October 13, 1982: Job Training Partnership Act of 1982
•October 15, 1982: Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act
•January 7, 1983: Nuclear Waste Policy Act
•April 20, 1983: Social Security Amendments of 1983
•September 28, 1984: Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act
•October 30, 1984: Cable Communications Act of 1984
•April 7, 1986: Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985
•June 6, 1986: Federal Employees Retirement System
•October 1, 1986: Goldwater-Nichols Act
•October 22, 1986: Surface Freight Forwarder Deregulation Act of 1986
•October 26, 1986: Tax Reform Act of 1986
•November 6, 1986: Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
•July 22, 1987: McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act
•August 10, 1988: Civil Liberties Act of 1988
•August 4, 1988: Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act
•August 23, 1988: Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act
•October 13, 1988: Family Support Act Election of 1980 Election of 1984 Election of 1988 Ronald Reagan(Republican)
489 electoral vote
49 electroal vote
John B. Anderson(Independent) 0 electoral vote Ronald Reagan(Republican)
525 electoral vote
13 electroal vote George H. W. Bush(Republican)
426 electoral vote
111 electoral vote Elections of the 80's Civil Right's in the 80's •Reagan opposes the civil rights act of 1964 and voting rights act of 1965
•First opposed the Martin Luther King Jr. Holiday
•Civil liberties act of 1988(acknowledge the fundamental injustice of the evacuation, relocation, and internment of United States citizens and permanent resident aliens of Japanese ancestry during World War II)
•Civil rights restoration act of 1988, congress overrode Reagans veto. Supreme Court cases • County of Washington v. Gunther (1981), held that an amendment incorporating affirmative defenses of the EPA into Title VII did not limit Title VII wage discrimination claims to those of the EPA. This decision affirmed EEOC's interpretation that Title VII sex discrimination covers wage discrimination based on sex independent of the EPA.
• Connecticut v. Teal (1982), held that an employer is liable for race discrimination where any part of its selection process, such as an examination, has a disparate impact on black applicants or employees, even if the "bottom line" result of the employer's hiring or promotional practice is racially balanced. This decision made clear that the fair employment laws protect the individual and therefore fair treatment of a group is no defense to an individual claim of discrimination.
• EEOC v. Wyoming (1983), held that Congress did not violate the U.S. Constitution when it made the ADEA applicable to state and local governments. This was a crucial ruling for ADEA enforcement because state and local government employment was one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy.
• Meritor v. Vinson (1986), the Supreme Court's first sexual harassment case, affirmed EEOC's interpretation that sexual harassment that is sufficiently severe or pervasive to create a hostile work environment violates Title VII.
• Johnson v. Transportation Agency, Santa Clara County (1987), upheld a voluntary affirmative action plan and delineated requirements for the lawfulness of such plans. The Court said that for such a plan to be valid, an employer must show a "manifest imbalance" in the representation of minorities or women in traditionally segregated job categories, that the plan is temporary, and that the plan does not unnecessarily restrict rights of male or non-minority employees or create an absolute barrier to their advancement. • Watson v. Forth Worth Bank & Trust Co. (1988), held that the disparate impact analysis can be applied to subjective or discretionary selection practices, such as promotion decisions. Previously, the Court had applied this analysis only to employment tests and other objective practices.
• Public Employees Retirement System of Ohio v. Betts (1989), held that the ADEA does not prohibit discrimination in benefit plans as long as a plan is not a subterfuge to discriminate in some non-fringe benefit aspect of employment. Betts was overturned legislatively by the Older Workers Benefit Protection Act of 1990.
• Lorrance v. AT&T Technologies (1989), held that the time in which a facially neutral seniority system can be challenged runs from the adoption of the allegedly discriminatory system. The Court rejected EEOC's position that the limitations period begins to run only when the employee is adversely affected by the seniority system. Lorrance was overturned legislatively by the Civil Rights Act of 1991.
• Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins (1989), held that if a plaintiff shows that discrimination played a "motivating part" in an employment decision, the employer can avoid liability only by proving by a preponderance of the evidence that it would not have made the same decision in the absence of the discriminatory motive. Later, the Civil Rights Act of 1991 imposed liability for injunctive relief and attorney's fees even where the employer meets this burden of proof.
• Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Antonio (1989), held that a plaintiff may make a showing of a disparate impact violation of Title VII only by demonstrating that specific practices (and not the cumulative effect of the employer's selection practices) adversely affected a protected group. Further, the Court held that when a showing of disparate impact is made, the employer must only produce evidence of a business justification for the practice, and that the burden of proof always remains with the employee. In response to Wards Cove, the Civil Rights Act of 1991 provided that once a disparate impact has been demonstrated, the employer must show that the challenged practice is both job-related and consistent with business necessity, and has the burden of proof on these issues. Ronald Reagan Reagan was an intense conservative as well as an anti-communist.
He was the oldest president to ever be appointed.
He initiated his economic plan of Reaganomics which is similar to the trickle down theory.
Many believe he is the best Republican ever. George H. W. Bush He was the 41st president of the United States
He ended the cold war in 1991 with the fall of the Berlin Wall Critics of supply-side economics agrued that cutting taxes did nothing for the economy besides benefit those that were wealthy. During the period from 1980 to 1986 the national debt more than doubled from $749 billion to $1.7 trillion because cuts in social spending did not match the increase of military spending. Federal Deficit by Year Music and
Entertainment Foreign Affairs
in the 1980s On August 1st, 1981 the American culture was transformed with the airing of "Video Killed the Radio Star" by The Buggles on the newly created television station called MTV. This transformed American pop culture drastically. Cold War First Persian Gulf War
(1980-1988) Afghanistan Iranian Hostage Crisis U.S. Libya Conflict U.S. Intervention in Lebanon U.S. Invasion of Grenada The Tanker War U.S. Invasion of Panama Terrorism The Unabomer- Ted Kaczynski
(home grown) 1983 Bombing of US embassy in Beirut 1983 Bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Kuwait 1984 Hijacking of Kuwait Airways Flight 221 1985Hijacking of TWA Flight 847 1989 Fall of Berlin Wall 1988 - Gorbachev Becomes
Supreme Leader of
Soviet Union The failed attempts by former President Jimmy Carter to rescue the hostages from Iran, were discredited once Reagan took oath and the hostages were returned. Part of the Iran- Iraq War taking place from '84 to '88, US intervened to protect Kuwait's oil supply from the invading Iraqi army. Iraq invaded Iran due to tensions over a disputed border. Iraq engaged in detrimental chemical warfare that was countered by extreme Iranian tactics. The war ended with both sides without any evident gain. To stop the Soviet Advancement into Afghanistan, the CIA lead by Congressman Charlie Wilson supplied billions of dollars worth of weapons to the Mujahideen (or jihadi warriors) in Afghanistan and were able to defeat the Soviets from advancement. With the '80s came many different genres of music including many unheard of prior to the decade. Glam Rock Thrash Metal POP Hip Hop/ Rap New advancements in technology such as the HD camera, greatly transformed the film industry. THE END