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The Cell and Inheritance
Transcript of The Cell and Inheritance
We can use Punnett squares to show what is happening in meiosis!
So the question is: How do sex cells end up with half the number of chromosomes as body cells?
And the answer: Meiosis!
Meiosis is the process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells (sperm and eggs).
Chromosomes and Inheritance
Chromosomes exist in pairs
We get half of our chromosomes from our female parent and the other half from our male parent.
This is possible because human sex cells only have half the number of chromosomes that our normal body cells have!
According to the chromosome theory of inheritance, genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes
Chromosomes are made up of many genes joined together like beads on a string
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes and between 20,000 and 25,000 genes. Each gene controls a trait!
In a chromosome pair, one chromosome came from the female parent. The other chromosome came from the male parent.
Both chromosomes in the pair have the same genes. The genes are lined up in the same order on both chromosomes. The alleles for some of the genes, however, might be different!
During Meiosis, the chromosome pairs separate and are distributed to two different cells.
The resulting sex cells have only half as many chromosomes as the other cells in the organism.
Chapter 4 Section 3