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Chemistry Behind Crayons

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Kelly Fernandez

on 26 June 2013

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Transcript of Chemistry Behind Crayons

Chemistry Behind Crayons
History of the Crayon
In 1864, Joseph W. Binney founded the Peekskill Chemical Company in Peekskill, N.Y. (Birth of the Crayola)

Binney & Smith, the maker of Crayola products, started out in the late 1800s making the color pigment for the paint used on the common red barns in rural America.

This company sold its first package of eight colored crayons, suitable for use in schools by children, in 1903.

The Name
The name crayon was created by Edwin Binney's wife, Alice. She combined the words craie (French for chalk) with the first part of the word oleaginous (the oily paraffin wax) to make the word "crayola."
Ingredients
Paraffin Wax, stearic acid, and Pigment
-Paraffin wax, stored in heated 17,000 gallon tanks, liquid form; delivery trucks must maintain a warm enough temperature to keep the paraffin from hardening (paraffin becomes liquid at about 135°F [57°C]).

from crude petroleum; used for candles and for preservative or waterproof coatings.(spa treatment used to soften hands and feet.)
- a specific type of alkane hydrocarbon.
-The wax has no taste and no smell, and is a clean white color.
Stearic acid C18H36O2
-octadecanoic acid
-Fatty Acid
- makes it possible to improve "rub off"

Pigment
Additional Ingredients
Over the past 10 years, additional ingredients have
been added to crayons. One of the most popular is
glitter, small pieces of reflective material that make
the crayon-produced work shine as it catches and reflects random beams of light.


Resources
Baggerman, Lisa. "How Products Are Made." How Crayon Is Made. Made How, Aug. 1994. Web. 25 June 2013.
Bellis, Mary. "Crayola Crayon History." About.com Inventors. About.com, 2013. Web. 24 June 2013.
"How Are Crayons and Markers Made?" HowStuffWorks. HowStuffWorks, Inc, 1998. Web. 24 June 2013.
"What Is Paraffin Wax?" WiseGEEK. Conjecture Corporation, 2003. Web. 25 June 2013.

Since paraffin will not mix with water or water mixtures, the pigments are in powdered form, although they may have been made from a water mix and then dried.

Pigments are made by suppliers following formulas dictated by the crayon manufacturer.

-Individual pigments are made of chemicals mixed together in wooden tanks and forced through filters to remove excess water, leaving chunks of the individual pigments.

Making Crayon Labels
Binney & Smith use a non-toxic cornstarch and water mixture for the glue that holds the label on
the Crayola crayon.

-The labels are in 11 languages and 18 different color labels are used for all the crayons.


On average, a child uses 730 crayons by their 10th birthday!
The Manufacturing Process
Full transcript