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Cruise Tourism in Egypt

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Nathalie Gallaire

on 6 August 2013

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Transcript of Cruise Tourism in Egypt

The impact of cruise tourism on the Nile
Nathalie Gallaire, Elena Musiol, Carolin Zorn
The Development of the Nile Valley
Target Group
Management of the destination
Marketing of the destination
Economic vs. Ecological, Social and Cultural objectives and challenges
Climate Change
Effects for Short-term and Long-term Strategies
Critical Review of Strategies
Should the Nile Valley encourage an increase in visitor numbers or introduce a limit?
Economy vs. Environment
Thank you for your attention and participation!
Now: visitor numbers are low
the right time to change from mass tourism to more sustainable tourism

Gain enough money to develop sustainable tourism
attract the regular visitors, but not in excess

Facing the challenges of the climate change
infrastructure along the Nile Valley should be developed

Making the Nile Valley more sustainable
implementing visitor management at ports and sites e.g. limitation to visitor numbers at cultural heritage

The Development of Cruise Tourism on the Nile
1870s: Thomas Cook Ltd. brought
speedy steamers to the Nile
Mass tourism became possible

1900: TC had developed a
tourist infrastructure along
the Nile

1906: After a monopoly for 34
years competition entered
the market
Cruise Tourism and the Nile Valley today
2nd favorite way to make holiday in Egypt
Many destinations along the Nile
Increase in amount of ships on the Nile:
1874: 17 ships
1990: 55 ships
2012: ~ 280 ships
Challenges for the Cruise Tourism and the Nile Valley
Extreme fluctuations in the development of visitor numbers:

Drop in visitor numbers due to several terrorist attacks
Since 2011 the number of international visitors decreased approx. 33 %
Cruise tourism: during the high season in 2012 only
60 % capacity utilization
Challenges for the Cruise Tourism and the Nile Valley
Overcrowding more and more pressure on cultural heritage sites

Issue of safety and poor management at many ports
Example: Valley of the Kings
7000-9000 tourists every day
Boniface, B., Cooper, C. (2009)
TIMEA (no date)
Neumann, S.; Schwartz, H. (2012)
Neumann, S.; Schwartz, H. (2012)
Egypt Tourism (2013)
Target group Nile Cruises
Impacts on sea level rise
Visitor profile for Nile Valley
An Environmental Protection Fund (EPF) will in accordance with the "Environment Act of 1994" be set up at the Agency.

The Fund will receive the amount specifically allocated to it in the General State Budget by way of support, donations and grants presented by national and foreign organizations concerned with environmental protection

(OECD ,2010)
Environmental Protection Fund
Climate Change Risk Management Programm (CCRMP)
Introduced October 2008
Duration of 36 month
For adaptation, the program will assist in providing tools to make strategic decisions to strengthen the institutional capacity to develop and to implement national strategies in the water resources, agricultural, and other sectors
For mitigation, it will assist in policies to help mitigate Egypt’s contribution to emissions by providing an enabling environment and incentive schemes to promote financing of renewable energy and energy efficiency initiatives as well as taking advantage of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
Environmental Development Programme
Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) declared commitment to achieve improvement in environment and reverse loss of environmental resources to reach sustainability
The Egyptian Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs (MSEA) major efforts in protecting its unique biodiversity
MSEA different projects on air quality , noise, fresh water, nature conservation and biodiversity, environmental development improvement in rural areas
Environmental Development

The implementation of the environmental policies of the government of Egypt, is carried out with four main principles underlying environmental management and protection initiatives:
Strengthening the integrative capacity of central and local government.
Strengthening of public - private partnerships.
Partnerships with environmental non governmental organizations.
The integration of gender issues in environmental policies and programs
Environmental Development
Environmental Strategy of Egypt:
-Environmental protection and
-A balanced use of natural resources

Egypt signed or ratifies a number of multi literal environmental agreements
1994: ratified United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
1999: signed Kyoto Protocol
Environmental Development
Environmental Authority:
In June 1997, the responsibility of Egypt's first full time Minister of State for Environmental Affairs was assigned as stated in the Presidential Decree no.275/1997. From thereon, the new Ministry of Sate for Environmental Affairs (MSEA) has focused, in close collaboration with the national and international development partners, on defining environmental policies, setting priorities and implementing initiatives within a context of sustainable development.

(EEAA ,2013)
Environmental development
Environmental Development
Affect level of the Nile river
Will decrease within the next years
Expected decline in water flow until 2040

Increased temperatures will lead to:
increased rates of desertification which would then lead to a lower productivity of some food such as rice and wheat
food scarcity
Increase consumption of water
impacts on public health diseases such malaria occur
sand storms and heat waves 
High temperatures
Water resources are rare
Egpyt’s water supply heavily depend on the Nile
Decreased rainfall diminishes to as little 2mm i.g in Aswan
Raise in temperatures increase the problem
underestimation of water supply for local demand and also affects tourists on the Nile
Until the end of the century loss of 75 % because of over population in the Nile delta
Decrease of Water supply of the Nile
1.) Sea level rise
2.) Decrease in water flow of Nile River
3.) High temperatures
5.) difficulties in cultivating some types of crops

(IPCC, 2007:74)

Effects of climate change for Nile valley
Egypt only produces only 0,6 % GHG emissions
Most affected country in the Arab world
Nile major living environment for lots of people
20 % of currency earnings are from the tourism sector
12,6 % of the workforce depend on the tourism sector
danger of climate change poses Egypt's tourism sector
and economy as a whole should not be underestimated
Decrease in sea level of the Nile up to 25 % less
Due to less precipitation in Africa
Climate Change Egypt

Effects of climate change and environmental developments for the Nile valley << effects for short-term and long-term strategies
Nile Cruise Route
Main Route: Luxor – Aswan

Highlights on Route
Ancient sightseeing
Ancient temple
Archaeological excavation
= therefore culture and historic interested people

3 main types of Cruise
3 night cruise
4 night cruise
7 night cruise
= average duration 5 nights for Nile cruise
Target group analysis
Average age of cruise customers
Most customers age of 55+
some 40 years
and some 65+

= as a result of the analysis of the cruise ships in the German, English, Italian and France market
Target group analysis
Distribution channel
Almost 70 % of Nile cruises are booked in travel agencies
30 % are booked online or directly at the cruise company
= assumption the customers are older and therefore, need more security and advisory service for choosing a Nile Cruise
Fit for Cruise (2012)
Target group analysis
Nile Cruise Provider
More than 280 Nile cruises in 2012
Lots of different cruise providers
2010: more than 300 ships
3 main categories: 5*, 4* or 3* ships available
Fit for cruise (2012)
Target group analysis
Average travel price
Germany: 529 € per week ( 7 nights)
United Kingdom: 640 € per week ( 7 nights)

FTI, Thomas Cook, Phoenix Reisen, OFT Reisen, Thomson Travel, Egypt Travel (2013)
Target group analysis
5 Top markets of customers
1.) Italy
2.) Germany
3.) Russian Federation
4.) United Kingdom
5.) France

= 45.2 % of all arrivals in Egypt those 5 markets
OECD Tourism Trend and Policies (2010)
Target group analysis
International Arrivals Egypt
2009: 12.536000
2010: 14.731000
2011: 9.845000

Cruise passengers on the Nile:
2009: 622000
2010: 680000
2011: 348000
World Tourism Organization (2012)
Target group analysis
Target group Nile Cruises
(rivers2oceans-kreuzfahrten.de, 2012)
Nile Cruise Route
Only 1m of sea level rise would flood much of the Nile Delta

inundating about one third (ca 34 %) of its land,
lacking important coastal cities

In this case it is estimated that about 8,5 % of Egypt's population will be displaced

Sea level rise
Visitor Profile for Nile Cruises
5 Top Markets of Customers
Economic objectives
Water Quality
Water Quantity
Increases in water requirements
Low water levels in the Nile
To close the increasing gap between the limited water resources and the escalating demand
Industrial waste water & diesel powered vessels
To reduce pollution and use renewable energies
Discharge of untreated, industrial and domestic waste water
To improve the water quality
The limited availability of adequate & productive agricultural land
To close the gap between agricultural production and food demands
Shortage of financial and human resources to deal with the volumes of waste
To control the generation, storage, treatment, recycle and reuse, transport, recovery, and disposal
Ecological Challenges and Objectives
Social Challenges and Objectives
Quality of Life
Worker's rights
Social Disparities
Labor Market
The availability of clean, potable water
Health problems is also an issue arising from pollution
To Improve QOL
Tourism policies should be applied to raise the standard of living of the populations
Employment rights: decent wages, fair contracts and safe working conditions
To Raise income, improve working conditions
To guarantee the fundamental rights of salaried and self-employed workers
Huge skill gap within the tourism labor market
To implement Training and Development for the workforce
To Reduce social disparities between various social groups
To Secure fair development opportunities between different regions of the country
To implant the concept of citizenship and stressing non-discrimination on the basis of sex, race or religion
Cultural Challenges and Objectives
Cultural Identity
Cultural Heritage

Tourists do not always tolerate and respect the diversity of religious, philosophical and moral beliefs

To preserve the cultural identity
To confirm the national belonging
Damage of Egypt’s cultural heritage sites
The Nile cruise industry:
Overcrowding, chaos and poor organization while visiting the sites
To conduct tourism policies and activities with respect for the artistic, archaeological and cultural heritage
All measures are implemented the Ministry of Tourism or the Egypt Tourist Authority

Tourism Budget: USD 60-65 Million

Sea level rise
Nile Cruise between Luxor and Aswan
One-Day Cruises
Short Cruises (2-4 days)
Long Cruise (at least 5 days)

Measure to attract visitors:
Opening of the Nile between Cairo and Luxor
Possibility for new product development
Generally higher than other North African Destinations due to higher quality of services

Measure to attract visitors:
Charter flight are being subsidized
No more landing fees in Luxor and Aswan
Tax and Energy price will be raised slower for the accommodation industry
Almost 70 % of Nile cruises are booked in travel agencies
30 % are booked online or directly at the cruise company

Measure to attract visitors:
Organization familiarization tours for travel agent and the press
Newspaper, trade press and TV ads
Tourist Information Centers
Presence at international travel fairs
Internet Presence and Social Media
Live Web cams in major tourist destinations
Current Sea Level Trend:
A sea level rise of only 1 meter would flood much of the Nile Delta
Approx. 34% of the land will be flooded
Important coastal cities are in danger
About 8,5 % of Egypt's population will be displaced
Decrease in sea level of the Nile up to 25 %
Water resources are rare
Egypt’s water supply heavily depend on the Nile
Until the end of the century loss of 75 % in water because of the over-population in the Nile delta
Decrease in water level of the Nile
Increased rates of desertification (sand storms and heat waves) 
Problems in cultivating some types of crops
food scarcity
negative impacts on the local demand & on the tourists
Impacts on public health diseases
Cause of Climate Change
Modern Lifestyle
Less Precipitation
Raise in Temperature
Glacier Meltdown
Impacts of Climate Change on the Nile Valley
Environmental Development
Ministry of Sate for Environmental Affairs (MSEA):

Established in June 1997
Defining environmental policies, setting priorities and implementing initiatives
Egypt signed or ratified a number of environmental agreements:

1999: signed Kyoto Protocol
1994: ratified United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Environmental Protection Fund (EPF)
Climate Change Risk Management Program (CCRMP):

Introduced in October 2008
Duration of 36 month
Provide tools to make strategic decisions on water resources, agricultural, and other sectors
What has been done?
1. Italy
2. Germany
3. Russian Federation
4. United Kingdom
5. France

= 45.2% of all arrivals in Egypt
=82,4 % of all Nile visitors
OECD (2012)
OECD (2012)
Hildebrandt (2013)
Kluge (2012)
Bruell (2012)
ETA (2012)
Expanding of the tourism sector
Establishing new tourism forms
Realizing higher rates of sustained economic growth
Increasing government revenues
Protecting Egypt from competitors
Achieving international relations
Reducing unemployment
Short-term Strategies
Worker's rights:
Re-arranging priorities of public expenditure to favor investing in human capital
Education, health and the governing environmental conditions

Labor market:
Egypt Tourism Workforce Development Project
Cultural Heritage:
Egyptian Cultural Heritage Organization
Long-term Strategies
Realizing higher rates:
Rationalization of the tax system and increase tax base
The existing GST is to be replaced by VAT

rotect Competition:R
e-enforce article 10 of the Competition Protection and Monopoly Prevention Act (CPMPA)
Water Quantity:
Establishment of Supreme Council for the Nile River and Waterways
Protection World Bank has granted Egypt a $6.7m endowment from the Global Environment Facility


create greenbelts around the Nile valley to ensure future food supply and more sustainable production areas
Social Disparity:
Promotion & education programs
Water Quality:
To ban deleterious environmental practices and material
To substitute with more environmentally friendly practices

Change of land use - manufacturing land should be changed to agricultural land

Identify partnerships for future disposal
Encourage diversion and "Zero Waste" at public events
More promotion and education
Economic vs. Sustainable development
Increasing visitor numbers versus protection of the environment and local communities

Projects and institutions are in place
Lack of evidence concerning the implementation and success

Difficulties in data collection to monitor success of policies

The Nile Valley will be strayed off from the priority tourism development area

OECD (2012)
Blair,E. & Werr,P. (2012),
Ministry of State of Environmental Affairs Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (2013)
Tourism Concern (2012)
Datamonitor (2012)
OECD (2012), Ministry of State of Environmental Affairs Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (2013), Greenpeace (2005)
OECD (2012), Ministry of State of Environmental Affairs Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (2013), Greenpeace (2005)
OECD (2012), Ministry of State of Environmental Affairs Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (2013), Greenpeace (2005)
Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (2001)
Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (2001)
Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (2001)
Engineering Consulting Group (no date), Ministry of Planni ng (2007), El-Tablawy, T. (2012)
Nathalie Gallaire, Elena Musiol, Carolin Zorn
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