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Anatomical Terminology

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Coach Steve Porter

on 12 February 2016

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Transcript of Anatomical Terminology

Goal 1:
Identify and use anatomical positions, planes, and directional terms.
Understand what the anatomical position is and how it is used to reference the body.
Distinguish between the commonly used anatomical planes and recognize their individual views.
Apply directional terms to locations on the human body.
Anatomical
Terminology

Rotation
Turning on a single axis

External Rotation
Rotation of the hip or shoulder away from the mid line

Internal Rotation
Rotation of the hip or shoulder toward the mid line
Movements
Superficial
Refers to a structure being closer to the surface of the body than another structure

Deep
Refers to a structure being closer to the core of the body than another structure
Positions and Directions
Medial
Refers to a structure being closer to the mid line or median plane of the body than another structure of the body
Positions and Directions
Anterior
Refers to a structure being more in front than another structure in the body
Positions and Directions
Terms of position and direction describe the position of one body part relative to another, usually along one of the three major body planes

Positions and Directions
NOW ... Test Yourself
Inversion
Turning the sole of the foot medially
Eversion
Turning the sole of the foot laterally
Movements (of the Foot)
Lateral Flexion
Side-bending left or right
Movements
Pronation
Turning the forearm to face the palm the opposite direction to the anatomical position
Shifting the ankle to the lateral of the mid line
Movements
Movements
Superior
Refers to a structure being closer to the head or higher than another structure in the body

Inferior
Refers to a structure being closer to the feet or lower than another structure in the body
Positions and Directions
Fixed lines of reference along which the body is often divided or sectioned to facilitate viewing of its structures

Allow anyone to obtain a
3-D perspective by studying the body from different views
Anatomical Planes
Radial Deviation
Movement of the wrist towards the radius or lateral side
Ulnar Deviation
Movement of the wrist towards the ulna or medial side
Movements (of the Wrist & Thumb)
Elevation
Raising a superiorly

Depression
Lowering a inferiorly
Movements
Adduction
Moving a body part towards the midline of the body
Movements
Transverse Plane
The horizontal plane dividing the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions

Also called the
Horizontal Plane
Anatomical Planes
Standing erect, with palms and feet facing forward

The standard reference point in which all positions, movements, and planes are described

Vital to all medical / health communications

NO interpretation - consistent

Anatomical Position
Flexion / Extension / Hyperextension
Flexion
Bending a joint or decreasing the angle between two bones
In the Fetal Position we are flexing our joints

Extension
Straightening a joint or increasing the angle between two bones
In the Anatomical Position we are extending our joints

Hyperextension
Excessive extension of the parts at a joint beyond anatomical position
Movements
Prone
Lying face down
Like a Pro Baseball player sliding into Home
Positions and Directions
Ventral – Black Dorsal – White

Humans are bipedal, we walk on two legs
Our Ventral side / Dorsal side flips at our extremities.
When you divide the skeleton into Axial (Blue) and Appendicular (Yellow) you can better understand the extremities and their roots.
Distal
(Reference to the extremities only)
Refers to a structure being further away from the root of the limb than another structure in the limb

Proximal
(Reference to the extremities only)
Refers to a structure being closer to the root of the limb than another structure in that limb
Positions and Directions
Frontal Plane
The plane dividing the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions

Also called the
Coronal Plane

Anatomical Planes
Sagittal Plane
The plane dividing the body into right and left portions

Midsagittal
or
Median
are names for the plane dividing the body into equal right and left halves
Anatomical Planes
Dorsal
Towards the back
Like the Dorsal fin of a dolphin.
Positions and Directions
Posterior
Refers to a structure being more in back than another structure in the body
Lateral
Refers to a structure being farther away from the mid line than another structure of the body
Ventral
Towards the front or belly
You Vent out of your nose and mouth.
Supine
Lying face up
Lying on your spine and you can have soup poured into your mouth.
Unilateral
Pertaining to one side of the body
Abduction
Moving a body part away from the midline of the body
Supination
Turning the forearm to face the palm the same direction to the anatomical position
Shifting the ankle to the medial of the mid line
Retraction
Moving a part posteriorly

Protraction
Moving a part anteriorly
bit.ly/exsciterms
Ventral – Black
Dorsal – White
Bilateral
Pertaining to both sides of the body
Supination
Flexion
Extension
Hyperextention
Circumduction
Abduction
Adduction
Elevation
Internal Rotation
Protraction
Flexion
Extension
Circumduction
Tri-planar, circular motion at the hip or shoulder
Dorsiflexion
Ankle movement bringing the foot towards the shin
Plantarflexion
Ankle movement pointing the foot downward
Opposition
Movement of the thumb across the palm of the hand that it might oppose a finger
Goal 2:
Demonstrate body movements.
Compare and contrast the movements of the body and their counter-movements.
Compare and contrast the movements of the foot /ankle and their counter-movements.
Compare and contrast the lateral movements of the wrist/hand and their counter-movements.
The goal is to have students apply anatomical terminology correctly!
Pronation
reference
anatomical
body
stand
arms
side
hands
superior
inferior
superior
superior
posterior
anterior
posterior
lateral
medial
lateral
C
F
G
D
I
J
A
E
H
B
BONUS
Each of the anatomical planes has an accompanying anatomical axis
Anatomical Axises
Movement in the sagittal plane rotates around the SAGITTAL HORIZONTAL axis
Movement in the frontal/coronal plane rotates around the FRONTAL HORIZONTAL axis
Movement in the transverse plane rotates around the VERTICAL/LONGITUDINAL axis
POSTERIOR
ANTERIOR
MEDIAL
LATERAL
DISTAL
PROXIMAL
1. Which answer describes the "Anatomical Position"?
A. Standing erect, facing observer, arms at side, palms facing to your side
B. Standing erect, facing observer, arms at side, palms facing forward
C. Standing erect, facing observer,arms at side, palms facing back
D. Standing erect, facing observer, arms at side, palms facing outward

2. Which statement is correct?
A. The neck is superior to the pelvis
B. The chest is inferior to the stomach
C. The hip is superior to the shoulder
D. The ribs are superior to the chin

3. Mrs. Jones is walking toward you. You are looking at her from a (an) _________ view?
A. Posterior
B. Dorsal
C. Anterior
D. Proximal

4. Which statement is correct?
A. The inside of the thigh is lateral to the outside of the thigh
B. The shoulder is lateral to the neck
C. The knee is lateral to the hip
D. The ankle is medial to the foot

5. Which statement is correct?
A. The knee is proximal to the hip
B. The hip is proximal to the knee
C. The shoulder is distal to the elbow
D. The knee is distal to the ankle

6. Mrs. Smith has poison ivy on her shoulder, the poor thing. She reaches her right hand over to her left shoulder to "scratch that itch". Which movement is occuring at her ELBOW joint?
A. Extension
B. Circumduction
C. Flexion
D. Supination

7. Which movement is occurring at Mrs. Smith's right shoulder when she "scratches that itch"?
A. External Rotation
B. Circumduction
C. Lateral Flexion
D. Internal Rotation

8. Jane feels compelled to do a few jumping jacks. Which movement is taking place as her hands come together above her head?
A. Lateral Flexion
B. Adduction
C. Internal Rotation
D. Abduction

9. Jane has completed those jumping jacks, her hands are now at her side. Which movement did she complete?
A. Adduction
B. Abduction
C. Internal Rotation
D. Lateral Flexion

10. Tilt your head, bringing your right ear to your right shoulder. What is the movement of your neck?
A. Rotation
B. Lateral Flexion
C. Medial Flexion
D. External Flexion

11. Mrs. Cicoria is mad at Mr. Cicoria. Her posture is as follows...She is standing with her left foot pointed forward, her right foot is pointed out the the side, her hands are on her hips, she is tapping her right foot up and down off the floor. Which answer best describes the action of her right HIP joint?
A. Flexion
B. External Rotation
C. Extension
D. Internal Rotation

12. The reason Mrs. Cicoria is angry is that she held out her right hand, PALM UP, waiting for Mr. Cicoria to give her some cash so that she could go shopping. What best describes this movement?
A. Pronation
B. Supination
C. Adduction
D. Rotation

13. GI Joe is working on his third set of thirty push-ups. Which best describes the position he is in?
A. Strong
B. Supine
C. Distal
D. Prone

14. Ann stands on her "tip toe's" to reach her favorite dish in the cupboard. What is the movement of her ankles?
A. Plantar Flexion
B. Extension
C. Dorsiflexion
D. Anterior Rotation

15. Mark is sitting in a chair, legs out in front of him resting on an ottoman. His knees are.....
A. Hyperextended
B. Rotated
C. Flexed
D. Extended

16. Remember when Mrs. Cicoria was mad, she was tapping her right foot on the floor? Which best describes her ANKLE movement as her foot lifts off the floor in an UPWARD motion?
A. Plantar Flexion
B. Dorsi Flexion
C. Inversion
D. Eversion

17. Tom has just received his new Hoveround! As he prepares to get into his chair safely, he straigtens and braces his left arm on the left armrest of the chair. He bends forward to flip up the footplate of the chair. Which movements have occurred at his ELBOW and HIP joints?
A. Flexion of elbow, Extension of hip
B. Abduction of elbow, Flexion of hip
C. Extension of elbow, Flexion of hip
D. Abduction of elbow, adduction of hip

18. Which BEST describes the action do you complete every day when you turn OFF the ignition of your van?
A. Supination
B. External Rotation
C. Internal Rotation
D. Pronation

19. Jillian is the cutest little baby, she is lying in her crib playing with the toy that is hanging above her. What position is Jillian lying in?
A. Supine
B. Prone
C. Flexed
D. Extended

20. Which statement is correct?
A. The ear is medial to the eye
B. The chin is anterior to the nose
C. The elbow is proximal to the shoulder
D. The elbow is distal to the shoulder
Full transcript