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Pia Frascatore

on 12 November 2012

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Transcript of Iran

Agenda: Background: Culture and pre-WWII history
Socialism in Iran and the installment of the Shah
Iranian Revolution in 1979
Modern Iranian v. US relations Persia: Aryan means noble
"Iran"in Persian means "Land of the Aryans"
550 BC first Persian Empire
636 AD introduction of islam WWII "This incident brings into war a neutral and pacific country which has had no other care than the safeguarding of tranquility and the reform of the country."
- Reza Shah Pahlavi in letter to Franklin Roosevelt, 25 August 1941 Officially neutral, but maintained friendly relations with Germany, and refused to expel german nationalists
Reza Shah Pahlavi is removed from power upon occupation, replaced by his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Mosadequ's Iran Becomes Prime Minister after predecessor is assassinated
1951 TIME magazine person of the year
Nationalizes the country's oil Coup d'état 1953 CIA intervention:
Operation Ajax: considered one of the greatest intelligence successes
Brought Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi back into power
General Fazlollah Zahedi announced as prime minister Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Iran Persian Corridor U.S. support of Iraq in Iran-Iraq War 1980-88
Iranian Interior Political Struggles
Iranian Nuclear Enrichment Program Strains in Relations Nuclear Iran The nuclear program of Iran was launched in the 1950s with the help of the United States as part of the Atoms for Peace program.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini considered nuclear weapons evil in terms of Islam
Research Continued in 1989 after Ruhollah Khomeini's death
Bushehr I reactor was complete with major assistance of Russian government in 2011 History of Nuclear Iran Controversial reelection in June 2009 sparked nationwide protests over allegations of electoral fraud
Green Revolution
Twitter Revolution
Protest suppressed
Internet shut down
Between 36-72 deaths Mahmud Ahmadinejad
Reelection In 1997 reformists where elected in Iranian government, and Reformist Majles (legislature) in 2000
Hojjat ol-Eslam Mohammad Khatami as President
Movement stopped by conservative politicians
Prevented reform measures from being enacted and increased repressive measures
Which led to August 2005 inauguration of Mahmud Ahmadinejad as President. Iranian Interior Politics Rumsfeld and Saddam US Support of Iraq Iran-Iraq War 1980-88 1980 Air and ground invasion by Iraq
1981 Iran goes on offensive
Trench War
Mustard gas used
Human Wave attacks
Million Causalities on both side
1988 United Nations Security Council Resolution 598(Ceasefire) accepted by both sides Saddam Hussein welcomes Iranian Revolution
Ayatollah Khomeini calls upon the Iraqi people to rise against the Iraqi government.
Saddam labels Iran a threat in the region.
Saddam also sees Iranian Revolution to his advantage for attack.
Saddam saw Iran as a strategic territory to annex
Khomeini used ideology to prepare his troops Pre Iran-Iraq War Hostages finally released on 20 January 1981
Algiers Accords
US would unfreeze Iranian assets
US would not interfere with Iranian internal affairs Release Cont. Negotiations proved unfruitful
Muhammad Ali
Attempted rescue operations were also unsuccessful
Operation Eagle Claw - 8 dead Release Iran
Lost international support
Politicians left in strong position
Gained American documents from embassy
United States
Lost embassy
Sanctions against Iran Aftermath Seen as a strike against American power
Demands for releasing the hostages
Return of the Shah to Iran
Unfreezing of Iranian assets
US apologize for interference in Iran Reasoning Lasted from 4 November 1979 to 20 January 1981
Muslim Student Follower of the Imam's Line
66 Americans captured
13 hostages release on 19 November 1979
Richard Queen released on 11 July 1980
52 held until 20 January Details Hostage Crisis Iranian Revolution Discussion: Do you think that the United States has learned from its past conflicts (Vietnam, Korea, etc) in its dealings with Iran?
Should the United States and Israel intervene in Iran's nuclear aspirations?
Is Israel Iran's Cuba? Scandel became Iran's "watershed" Six American diplomats escaped from the embassy
Held in secret by the Canadian embassy
Canadians contacted the US Canadian Caper Antonio Mendez
Pose as a Canadian film crew
Studio Six
"Lord of Light" script
Entered and left country without any problems Details Reinstatment of monarch ended all democratic and Nationalist movements Great relations with Britain and US Ethnic diversity as caused by empire: http://tinyurl.com/9lctg7f Huey helicopters
http://tinyurl.com/9u3uvsa Howitzers Iranian Soldiers
http://tinyurl.com/8nvl7wj Rumsfeld and Saddam
http://tinyurl.com/9zcgfx7 Fordo enrichment facility http://tinyurl.com/93889x8 Slowing Down Production Sanctions
Killing of Iranian nuclear scientists
Iran claims attacked done by Iranian dissident groups who are supposedly trained by Mossad
Stuxnet computer worm
Wiped out roughly a fifth of Iran’s nuclear centrifuges and helped delay production US caught entirely off guard
Iran deemed stable by CIA
Robert Jervis
Beliefs were “disconfirmable”
Belief that Shah was strong and decisive
Did not understand the role of religion
Misunderstandings of nationalism and anti-Americanism Intelligence Failures Underestimation of revolutionaries
Didn't reveal entire plan at once
Exaggerating of brutality and deaths
Played on the public's sensibilities
Acted far too late Reasons for Success New Iranian constitution based on his views
November 1979 – Became Supreme Leader of Iran Ruhollah Khomeini Cont. 4 November 1964 – Exiled from Iran
Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist
Legal laws should be Sharia law
Government officials should know Sharia law
Clerical rule
1 February 1979 – Returned to Iran Ruhollah Khomeini Unpopularity of the Shah
Seen as puppet of the West
Oppression of dissenting groups
Disregard for Islamic tradition
Economic failures
Interference of West
Coup of 1953
Liberalization of Iran Causes Early 1978 – Demonstrations begin
8 September 1978 - “Black Friday”
Demonstrations begin to escalate
16 January 1979 – The Shah leaves Iran
1 February 1979 – Khomeini returns to Iran
11 February 1979 – Revolution succeeds Iranian Revolution Protesters in Tehran
http://tinyurl.com/8gxwwwl http://tinyurl.com/9vscd2e Map of Nuclear Sites in Iran
http://tinyurl.com/8ny7z2z Parchin Tehran
http://tinyurl.com/974dygr Mahmud Ahmadinejad delivers a speech to Iran's Atomic Energy Organization scientists during a ceremony to mark National Nuclear Day in Tehran in April 2012.
http://tinyurl.com/9a6g58n Argo movie poster Jack Kirby's concept art Return of the hostages Muhammad Ali Protesters scaling the embassy gate Several billion dollars worth of economic aid
Non-U.S. origin weaponry
Iraqi intelligence/CIA worked closely
CIA of Director William Casey http://tinyurl.com/8jkbbbt Secured eastern front after german invasion of Russia
Also secured oil source for allies, controlled by Anglo-Persian oil company, which becomes BP WWI & Effects Declared neutral, but became battle ground
1926 Ex-general and former prime minister, Reza Shah Pahlavi crowned Shah 98% Muslim, 89% Shia Intel SAVAK allowed to maintain his unrivaled power by at the cost of civilian's security
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