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Wounded strong Christian empire
Doubted the church Criticizes Pope for taking money Found his own Salvation
Salvation not from Church Luther's 95 Theses The Pope has no power over purgatory
Selling indulgences is wrong
Money used to build St. Peter's
Gives people a false sense of security
May endanger their true salvation John Calvin Separation of church and state
Work Philosophy Wealth comes from hard work
Allowed capitalism to flourish The Reformation Calvanism Total Depravity
No one can ever gain God's favor
Your fate is predetermined
Limited Atonement Christ didn't die for all
Those that obtain salvation do so because of God's grace
Perseverance of the Saints
Those chosen by God will be glorified no matter what Impact Split Catholic and Protestant
Divided Europe England-Protestant Spain and France
Catholic Books were banned that were thought to challenge the church
Martin Luther and Galileo
Massacre of Bartholomew
Began to challenge divine right Protestants were victims
Paris August 24, 1572
Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestant)
Clergy attacked the unarmed protestants
5,000-30,000 deaths Massacre of Bartholomew European
Absolutism What Monarchy
Ruler has complete power
Strong military and territorial expansion were key
Led to consolidation of national borders
State policies Louis XIV French
Became King at age 5
Created a centralized bureaucracy
Built the largest army and navy Europe had seen in centuries Henry VIII Supreme leader and head of Church in England
Denounced Martin Luther
Defender of Faith
Separation of Churches (Reformation)
Church of England
Slight alterations of worship as Henry was appointed head Literacy Expansion
Popular Authors Printing Press Johannes Gutenberg
Spread Renaissance ideas
Italy to the rest of Europe
Impacted religious debated
Partially caused reformation
More people could read because it was available
Bible, essays, and articles for and against reform Miguel de Cervantes Wrote the first modern novel
World's first best seller
Made reading enjoyable
More people wanted to read
Literacy grew The
Revolution Copernicus stated the planets' orbit (agreed with Greek thought)
set scientific advances in motion
other people that led to key discoveries/understandings:
Johannes Kepler - planetary motion
Vesalius - anatomy These discoveries advanced previous knowledge and made people realize the power that scientific research had and its ability to test and overrule accepted ideas. Galileo Published Copernicus's discoveries
Laws off gravity
Didn't trust traditional ideas
Pride in scientific achievement Isaac Newton End of 17th century
Astronomical and physical observations together
Basic principles of motion
Defined forces of gravity
Stated basic scientific method Lead To... More people involved in science
Lectures/Easy to read manuals
People using LOGIC to explain and
Senses and Reason
Science = central to intellectual life
Understanding of natural laws Causes Renaissance
People were individuals
People could get salvation on their own and started to think more "logically" about other things besides religion Enlightenment What Intellectual movement
Applying natural laws to society
Centered in France
Rational laws describe
Used to improve
policy Key Players Thomas Hobbes
political thought - English philosopher
concerned with social and political order - peace
Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness - constitution
separation of church and state, freedom of religion, freedom of expression Effects Led to Revolutions
Natural Rights African
Americas Food Improved growing techniques
Okra Language Established new language
Creole - mixture of European and native African languages
Integrating the two cultures - allowed communication Religions Syncretic Religions - combining of different religions (like creole)
Everything is spirit
Created after Africans were Christianized after coming to America
Refine/restore energy Maritime
Empires Mughals Worked more internally
Divine Faith - combined Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrianism, Christian, Sikh
Akbar the Great - completed conquest
Remained away from new technologies (printing press) Spain Taken up in the movements
Introduced new technologies
Mexico City was their headquarters
Conquered Montezuma II and Aztecs
Less dependence on China
More women's rights Renaissance Art Light and color
Space, perspective, 3-D
Baroque - asymmetry Gianlorenzo Bernini, David Giotto, The Visitation Masaccio. Tribute Money Leonardo da Vinci. The Last Supper Caravaggio, Entombment Renaissance Started in the 15th century and lasted into the 18th century
Began in Florence, Italy
Influenced primarily by Greco-Roman civilization
Progression out of dark age in Europe from new ideals, philosophies, and styles of art Philosophies Humanism
focus on human aspects of the world
revival of greek and roman ideal of natural law
movement away from theology towards studies in the humanities: classic literature, poetry, history, and rhetoric
outlook that emphasizes the worth of the individual
helped promote freedoms and rights of the individual
Focus on things of the world in complete isolation from religion
Promoted thinking without bringing church teachings into account The Medicis Extremely powerful and influential family based in Florence
Formed the Medici Bank which grew to become the biggest bank of the 15th century
Gained control of political power in Florence
Helped start the Renaissance and significantly helped it grow and continue through their large wealth and power
Included 4 popes and 2 queens of France
Were the patron's of many architects, artists and other "Renaissance men" including Leonardo Da Vinci Art New techniques used to show better depth
Used more accurate proportions and realism especially dealing with humans which were the subjects of most artwork
Leonardo Da Vinci
Mona Lisa, The last Supper, also drew up blueprints
The David, The Sistine Chapel, St Peter's Basilica Vodun (Voodoo) Syncretic religion that blended Christianity with various African religions
Has a creator god called different names based on region
Other children deities that govern a part of nature
Spirits inside things in nature ie. logs, streams, rocks
Spirits of the dead which live in the world of the living
Spirits and deities known as vodun or Ioa Call upon spirits for help through rituals
Female priests: sometimes hereditary
Resposible for various ceremonies such as marriages and baptisms
Special artifacts which are believed to have mystical powers
Voodoo dolls, shrunken heads, animal body parts
Practiced in West Africa and the Carribean especially Haiti Creole Ethnic group and culture in the New World
Mix of European (French and Spanish), African, and Native American
Practiced both Christianity and Vodun
Food blended the 3 cultures food styles and was very important in distinguishing the culture
Jambalaya, gumbo, etouffee
Creole language drew from Spanish and French, mixing in bits of African and Native American dialects Bibliography 1.Barron's Ap World History. N.p.: Barrons Educational Series, 2011. Print.
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