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Patterns of Development and Stylistic Devices
Transcript of Patterns of Development and Stylistic Devices
and Style Patterns of Development Be sure to complete the SUMMARY at the bottom of your Cornell notes The way an essay is arranged, or its organization, is called a PATTERN OF DEVELOPMENT. PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT help an author or speaker achieve his or her purpose. These patterns represent both logical ways to represent an entire text and ways to organize support paragraphs as well.
In other words, it is entirely possible for a piece of writing to have more than one PATTERN OF DEVELOPMENT depending on the author's purpose. NARRATION refers to telling a story or recounting a series of events. It is often based on personal experience and observation, and generally is organized in chronological order. NARRATION also can include literary elements such as dialogue or characters. Remember: NARRATION is not simply telling a story, narration is telling a story, it is telling a story that SUPPORTS YOUR THESIS STATEMENT!
the idea for this book was born one night after a grueling conversation with my then eleven-year old son. He had come homke from his progressive middle school unnaturally quiet and withdrawn, shrugging off my questions of concern with uncharacteristic irritability. Where was the sunny, chatty boy I dropped off that morning? What had befallen him in the perilous halls of middle school? I backed off but kept a close eye on him, watching for clues. NARRATION DESCRIPTION is similar to NARRATION because both include many specific details, but the difference lies in the purpose. DESCRIPTION emphasizes imagery and painting a picture in the audience's mind. To identify a DESCRIPTION essay, look for sensory images.
I made friends over time with the other "girls" who work my shift: Nita, the tattooed twenty-something who taunts us by going around saying brightly, "Have we started making money yet?" Ellen, whose teenage son cooks on the graveyard shift and who once managed a restaurant in Massachusetts but won't try out for management here because she prefers being a "common worker" and not "ordering people around." Easy-going fiftyish Lucy, with the raucous laugh, who limps toward the end of the shift because of something that has gone wrong with her leg, the exact nature of which cannot be determined without health insurance. We talk about the usual girl things - men, children, and the sinister allure of Jerry's chocolate peanut-butter cream pie. Description PROCESS ANALYSIS essays explain how something works, how to do something, or how something was done in the past. You use PROCESS ANALYSIS to explain a recipe or learn a new computer tool.
"The next summer Hayes headed into the field. He loaded a refrigerated 18-wheel truck with 500 half-gallon buckets and drove east, followed by his students. He parked near an Indiana farm, a Wyoming river, and a Utah pond, filled his buckets with 18,000 pounds of water, and then turned his rig back toward Berkeley. He thawed the frozen water, poured it into hundreds of individual tanks, and dropped in thousands of leopard-frog eggs collected en route. To find out if frogs in the wild showed hermaphroditism, Hayes dissected juveniles from numerous sites. To see if the frogs were vulnerable as adults, and if the effects were reversible, he exposed them to atrazine at different stages of their development. Process Analysis NO SUMMARY, NO CREDIT STARTING NEXT CLASS! COMPARE/CONTRAST essays are a very common pattern of development. This type of essay juxtaposes two things to highlight their differences and similarities. By doing this carefully, you can reveal insights into the information being analyzed.
The memories of my arrival in Hanover, New Hampshire, are mostly of the color green. Green cloaked hillsides, crawled up the ivied walls, and was reflected in the river where the Dartmouth crew students sculled. For a girl who had never been far from Crownpoint, New Mexico, the green felt incredibly juicy, lush, beautiful, and threatening. Crownpoint had had vast acreage of sky and sand, but aside from the pastel scrub brush, mesquite, and chamiso, practically the only growing things there were the tiny stunted pines called pinion trees. Yet it is beautiful; you can see the edges and contours of red earth stretching all the way to the boxshaped faraway cliffs and the horizon. No horizon was in sight in Hanover, only trees. I felt claustrophobic. EXEMPLIFICATION essays provide a series of examples - facts, specific cases, or instances - that turn a vague, abstract concept into a concrete one. This makes an argument clearer and more persuasive to the audience. This comes from Aristotle's "logical proof" called INDUCTION. INDUCTION is a series of specific examples that lead to a general conclusion. For example, hip-hop culture has gone mainstream (conclusion). You would then cite a series of examples to support that conclusion such as hip-hop music in advertising, the language of hip-hop gaining widespread use, and entertainers from different genres using hip-hop in their own music.
My own two sons, now twenty-one and seventeen, have read (in public and private schools) Shakespeare, Hawthorne, and Melville. But they've also slogged repeatedly through the manipulative melodramas of Alice Walker and Maya Angelou, through sentimental middlebrow favorites (To Kill a Mockingbird and A Separate Peace), the weaker novels of John Steinbeck, the fantasies of Ray Bradbury. My older son spent the first several weeks of sophomore English discussing the class's summer assignment, Ordinary People, a weeper and former best seller by Judith Guest about a dysfunctional family recovering from a teenage son's suicide. CLASSIFICATION/DIVISION essays are essays that categorize material or ideas into major categories by answer the question "what goes together and why?" These connections sometimes may seem unrelated, but in some cases, authors and speakers use these techniques to explain how two things correlate even if they do not seem to at first glance.
Recently, I was made keenly aware of the different Englishes I do use. I was giving a talk to a large group of people, the same talk I had already given to half a dozen other groups. The nature of the talk was about my writing, my life, and my book, The Joy Luck Club. The talk was going along well enough, until I remembered one major difference that made the whole talk sound wrong. My mother was in the room. And it was perhaps the first time she had heard me give a lengthy speech, using the kind of English I have never used with her. I was saying things like "The intersection of memory upon imagination" and "There is an aspect of my fiction that related to thus-and-thus" - speech filled with carefully wrought grammatical phrases, burdened, it suddenly seemed to me, with nominilized forms, past perfect tenses, conditional phrases, all the forms of standard English that I had learned in school and through books, the forms of English I did not use at home with my mother. It is VERY IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER that author's can use MORE THAN ONE PATTERN OF DEVELOPMENT IN A TEXT. For example, Rachel Carson's famous environmental essay "Silent Spring" is Narration, but it also relies on Cause and Effect and Definition to accomplish its purpose: to show how human beings can harm the environment.
Generally, a good rule of thumb when examining a text for Patterns of Development is to look paragraph by paragraph, as that is mostly where the changes will occur.
On the AP Lang exam, they will want the "MOST PROMINENT" Pattern of Development. This means that even if the author utilizes 3-4 different patterns, which pattern most prominently helps him or her accomplish his or her purpose? A Review of Stylistic Devices Author's Use:
Evocative or Emotive Language, appeals to emotion
Lists of Relevant Details, adds clarity and builds on the appeal to credibility
Figurative Language, especially to force readers/listeners to see things from a fresh perspective
Imagery, appeals to the senses and draws readers into the text
Repetition, used to emphasize certain words or ideas
Parallel Structure, used to emphasize certain phrases or ideas
Irony, gets us to see the truth through exaggeration, parody, and caricature
Analogy, shows logical relationships between subjects CAUSE AND EFFECT is a pattern that analyzes either causes that lead to effects, or reversing that trend, effects that lead to causes. This is one of the most powerful foundations for any argument, and a good place to begin thinking about creating your own argument. It is vital that your analysis includes CRYSTAL CLEAR LOGIC to win over your audience. You have to carefully and deliberately construct a chain of effects that lead directly to a cause so that you leave no doubt in your audience's mind as to the accuracy of your claim. Using SYLLOGISM or DEDUCTIVE REASONING is a great way to accomplish this.
Great novels can help us master the all-too-rare skill of tolerating - of being able to hold in mind - ambiguity and contradiction. Jay Gatsby has a shady past, but he's also sympathetic. Huck Finn is a liar, but we come to love him. A friend's student once wrote that Alice Munro's characters weren't people he'd choose to hang out with but that reading her work always made him feel "a little less petty and judgmental." Such benefits are denied to the young reader exposed only to books with banal, simple-minded moral equations as well as to the students encouraged to come up with reductive, wrong-headed readings of multi-layered texts. Here are some important verbs to remember when considering rhetoric. These are verbs that WILL BE in your AP essay and multiple choice prompts to point you to examining rhetorical functions:
Analyze: to break apart; to look at component parts of a text in order to understand an aspect of the whole.
Characterize: to depict something in a certain way; to give specific characteristics of someone or something.
Claim: to make a statement of "fact," something you intend to prove
Clarify: to draw distinctions, to make more evident, to lessen confusion
Discuss: to consider in writing a variety of possible views (ways of interpretation) on a topic
Dramatize: to give a story to situation, to add vivid details, such as imagery, figurative language, etc.
Emphasize: to give added importance or weight to something
Establish: to set a foundation for, to base a claim on an observation
Imply: to state indirectly, to have a logical consequence
Indicate: to be a signal of, to state or express
Observe: to take notice of, and thereby, it is implied, to draw conclusions
Paraphrase: to put into more common, less complex (or technical) language
Propose: to suggest a plan or a solution to a problem
Rebuff: to reject
Suggest: to offer a perspective, solution, or a way of thinking about something for consideration
Support: to give reasons and examples for a statement of fact or a claim Compare and Contrast Exemplification Classification & Division DEFINITION is a vital pattern of development that helps you make your definition clear. So many discussions in our lives are dependent upon definitions. If we want to discuss the benefits of applying to an Ivy League college, then first we need to define what "Ivy League" actually means. DEFINITION is a pattern that helps us find common ground and allows us to be absolutely clear and concrete about what we mean.
Good families prize their rituals. Nothing welds a family more than these. Rituals are vital especially for clans without histories because they evoke a past, imply a future, and hint at continuity. No line in the seder service at Passover reassures more than the last: "Next year in Jerusalem!" A clan becomes more of a clan each time it gathers to observe a fixed ritual (Christmas, birthdays, Thanksgiving, and so on), grieves at a funeral (anyone may come to most funerals; those who do declare their tribalness), and devises a new rite of its own. Equinox breakfasts can be at least as welding as Memorial Day parades. Several of my colleagues and I used to meet for lunch every Pearl Harbor Day, preferably to eat some politically neutral fare like smorgasbord, to "forgive" our only ancestrally Japanese friend, Irene Kubota Neves. For that and other things we became, and remain, a sort of family. Definition Cause and Effect More than one Pattern of Development... Stylistic Review The Verbs of Rhetoric