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Citizenship around the world

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Agnieszka Kubal

on 28 January 2013

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Transcript of Citizenship around the world

Theorizing citizenship: emerging themes in the global context Brubaker's (1992) theme of exclusion of others for the sake of delimiting who the demos is Documentary citizenship BUT... - problematic due to colonial past, flexible borders and lack of congruency between the borders and the 'nation' [Sadiq 2005 on Sabah, Malaysia] OR - the state agents turn a blind eye to instigate a change in the demographic structure of the regional population for political purposes due to inefficiency of the state legal actors in developing context - leads to suffraged non-citizens and non-suffraged citizens US, Western Europe Australia Ibyangin, Ibangin - Our Adoptee, Our Alien Reproduction of Cultural citizenship process of coming to terms that citizenship founded upon a myth of ethnic homogeneity is now to accommodate the actual heterogeneity of Korean population Modern primordialism Embrace globalization [...] to naturalize and sentimentalize the presumed biological ties (p. 507), kinship and inalienable roots (508), logic of filial piety (509), motherland (510), sense of identity (515), fragile hopes of finding a place of authentic belonging (516), 'bad' bloodiness, ancestral place (519) At the same time impossibility of full legal incorporation and rights Emerging themes? Maybe there is no such thing as the 'core' of citizenship? Citizenship is a contested, highly contextual construct where questions of race, biology, power, economic status, political suffrage, social rights, language are juxtaposed against one another in different configurations. India, Philippines Relationship between individual and the state It is not a universal institution 1) Imagined community - jinsiyya (nation) social rights first - cradle-to-grave welfare political rights - men 1999, women 2005 2) subjects of the ruling family - taba'iyya (pledged allegiance) Degrees of citizenship it is not a binary category (citizen vs non-citizen), but complicated by this myriad of configurations not universal - justice administered through system of personal laws Europe (and former USSR) Palestinians, 1948 Right to return - biased toward a population of specific ethnic/religious origin These Immigrants: equal rights to citizens from day 1 Much more difficult to naturalize Paradox of belonging and status Conferment of rights role of military service not only differentiating who belongs, but as a criterion for benefits personal law system (legal pluralism) - dependent upon degrees of citizenship Ayelet 1998, Sadiq 2005, Kim 2007 Kim 2007, Shevel 2012, Longva 2000 Institutional inefficiency discretion or abuse of power? many are falling through the cracks of bureaucracy uneven enforcement, unrecognized claims institutionalizing ambiguity Nostalgia after Imperial past and the USSR - reunites over citizenship issue the right wing and communist parties Conflicting notions of the 'real' nation. Complex rules and regulations, unevenly applied, overly bureaucratic De-nationalization of former Soviet citizens already living in Russia 2002 law 1991/1992 law 2003, 2005, 2008, 2010 amendments institutionalization of ambiguity The legal adaptation of British settlers in Turkey

Derya Bayir and Prakash Shah (GLOCUL: Centre for Culture and Law, Queen Mary, University of London) IMI Seminar, 6 February
1-2, QEH, Seminar room 2 Legal Pluralism unified system of state-law within the criminal and civil law,
ALONGSIDE justice is administered via various systems of personal (religious, tribal) laws - including issues of marriage, family, inheritance and adoption men and women of the polity are not equal before the law Status and identity Ideas of citizenship Conferment of rights Citizenship for whom? Imbalanced discourse identity fights back Mizrahi Jews full rights few rights What is citizenship? Joppke 2007: 38
A comprehensive account must distinguish between at least three aspects of citizenship:
-Citizenship as a status, which denotes formal state membership and the rules of access to it;
-Citizenship as rights which is about the formal capacities and immunities connected with such status;
-Citizenship as identity which refers to the behavioural aspects of individuals acting and conceiving themselves as members of a collectivity, classically the nation, or the normative conceptions of such behaviour imputed by the state. rights? special form of contract (Tilly 1996:5)
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