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The Welfare State

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by

Céline Pierre

on 27 September 2015

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Transcript of The Welfare State

The Welfare State
2. The origin of the Welfare State in Britain
Overview
1. Definition
2. The origins of the welfare state in Britain
3. The benefits system
4. Social services and charities
5. The National Health Service
a. Definition and history
b. A very simple system with some problems
c. The approach to receive medical care
d. The medical profession
1. Definition
“A system by which the government provides a range of free services to people who need them,
for example medical care, money for people without work, care for old people, etc.”
From the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary

Before the 20th century
No existence of the modern welfare state
Local communities: responsible for the welfare BUT the care = very poor
Workhouse
For the old, the sick, the mentally handicapped and orphans
Harsh treatment

Beginning of the 20th century
Introduction of the modern welfare state
Under the Liberal Prime Minister Herbert Asquith
new measures
1908: Old-Age Pension Act
1909: Free school meals
1912: National Insurance Act
national insurance contribution for unemployment
health benefits from work
1934: a means test
1942
Real impetus for the welfare state
Why? Many poor people at that time
William Beveridge
report on ‘social insurance and allied services’ with five issues
Poverty
Disease
Ignorance
Squalor
Idleness
a welfare state with a social security, a national health service, free education, council housing and full employment

1948
1948
Turning of the Beveridge’s report into law
Setting up of the National Health Service

3. The benefits system
Definition
Financial help from the government
Different forms of financial support
For people without paid work
For families with not sufficient income for its needs
For all retired people: standard old-age pension
Income support
For people not entitled to neither pension nor money for being unemployed
For people who need extra money
+ child benefit, sickness benefit, maternity benefit, death grant
Flaws of the benefits system

People with the right of receiving benefits and do not receive them
People without the right of receive benefits but receive them

Number of pensioners is rising increasing pressure on this system

Remarks

4. Social services and charities
Definition
social and human help from the government
Different sorts

Professional social workers
Paid from national or local authorities
Help people in need
Charities with unpaid volunteers
Ex: The Samaritans, Barnado’s, The Salvation Army, MENCAP and MIND
Social services run by state authorities but using the help of volunteers
5. National Health Service (NHS)
Definition and History

Definition
The publicly funded healthcare system for England
free medical treatment both in the hospital and outside.

History
Based on Act of Parliament
one for England and Wales in 1946
one for Scotland in 1947
From 1948: nothing to pay for medicine
In 1951: a small fixed payment became necessary
In 1964:The payment abolished for a long time by the Labor government
Restored in 1968
A very simple system... with some problems
Very simple system ...
Medical insurance = organized by the government + compulsory
Deducted from people’s salaries
The system = very simple for patients because:
No forms to fill in
No payments have to be made which are later refunded.
The only thing to obtain the benefits of the National Health Service = to be registered on a general practitioner’s list

... with some problems
Problems
Despite of these problems ...
the NHS fulfills the aim for which it was originally intended

Aim =
a) to take the financial hardship out of sickness
b) to offer people medical insurance




The potential of medical treatment has increased
the people expect more and more of medical science
The treatments = very expensive
treatments not freely available to everybody…
Britain = one of the lowest ratios of doctors per person.
Britain = a bad record for hospital hygiene
Private medical insurance

More and more people to private medical insurance

BECAUSE

1. On a waiting list
2. Specialist or surgeon ( delay )
3. To join the common herd.


The approach to receive medical care
To go to his general practitioner

The GP gives treatment, prescribes medicine or pills

The GP may arrange for whatever tests, surgery or specialist consultation
The General Practitioner
The GP = at the heart of the system

GP's prescribe less medicine for their patients than doctors in other countries in Europe.
BECAUSE the GP’s pay depends on the number of registered patients they have.

CSQ: Patients = healthy

The medical profession
Specialists
They have greater prestige than ordinary GPs.

Hospital consultants
HC = senior doctor with specialist knowledge in a particular field.
They work part-time for the NHS and the rest of their time, they earn big fees from private patients.

General Practitioners

Nurses

The nurses = admired for their caring work since Florence Nightingale
F.N.= a national heroine for her organization of nursing and hospital facilities during the Crimean War in the 1805’s.
The nursing profession = badly paid

“Group practice”
= Several GPs work in one building (same waiting room and receptionist)
Advantage = the patient can be seen by one of the doctor’s colleagues

Nurse uniform

Origin = nineteenth century
The traditional nurse uniform = a dress, an apron and a cap
Many variants
Since 1990: “ new” scrub
Thank you for your attention!

Dentist
Ophtalmologist
physiotherapist
pediatrician
Full transcript