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World War II

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Jacki Carugno

on 3 February 2013

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Transcript of World War II

World War II Background
Unresolved issues from World War I
Treaty of Versailles leaves Germany to blame and bitter
worldwide Depression opens the door for dictators Rise of Dictators
1. Adolf Hitler
2. Benito Mussolini
3. Josef Stalin Adolf Hitler (1889 - 1945)
WWI hero, disgruntled artist
1919 joined the Nazi party
Focused Germany's humiliation as a result of WWI
Fascist - emphasized the important of a nation or ethnic group
http://www.biography.com/people/adolf-hitler-9340144 Jailed while attempting to overthrow the government (Beer Hall Putsch)
Writes "Mein Kampf" - stengeth the military, expand borders, purify the "Arayan" race by removing all undersirables Hitler promised to:
1. stablize the country
2. rebuild the economy
3. restore the empire Hitler is voted into office!
1930 - Nazi's were the largest party in the Reichstag
1933 - Hitler is named Chancellor. Burns down the Reichstag and blames it on the communist.
1934 - death of Hindenberg allows Hitler to declare himself President Hitler suspends freedom of speech and freedom of the press.
Brown shirts use violence to silence those who oppose Hitler. Life Under Hitler 1933
Freedom of speech, press and privacy are taken away
concentration camp (Dachau) is established for political opponents
books are burned
forced sterization of Gypsies, disabled, African-Germans or "un-fit" 1935
compulsory military service reinstated
"No Jews" signs posted in towns and businesses
Nuremburg laws strip Jews of their citizenship 1936
Hitler invades the Rhineland
Hitler and Mussolini
create an axis
Olympic games take place in Berlin all anti-Jewish signs are removed 1938
Germany invades Austria and the Sudetenland Munich Conference
"Appeasement Policy"
Italy, Germany, England and France met to discuss Hitler's need for territory
They agreed to give up the Sudetenland NO ONE WAS
PREPARED FOR WAR!! Josef Stalin
5-year plan to industrialize and modernize the Soviet Union
forced farmers to combine farms -- those who resisted were sent to labor camps
millions were starved/food was rationed
PURGED political enemies
responsible for 28 million deaths Benito Mussolini
"Il Duce"
relied on "Blackshirts" to terrorize opponents
was appointed Prime Minister then became dictator
goal was to restore the Roman Empire
invaded Ethopia Not only was Germany taking territory, there were also:
restoring their military
building the Autobahn Kristellnacht (Nov. 8 - 9, 1938)
"Night of Broken Glass"
burning of synagogues
Jews beaten
arrested and thrown in camps Non-Aggression Pact
agreement between Stalin and Hitler dividing Poland Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They choose dishonor. They will have war. -Winston Churchill World War II Begins
Great Britain and France warned they would support Poland if if Germany attacked
9/1/39 Germany invades Poland through Blitzkrieg
Blitzkrieg is a war strategy -- fast concentrated attack by air then by ground forces
9/17/39 Soviet Union invades Poland
9/27/39 Poland surrenders The US Responds to War
1935 Neutrality Acts
1939 Cash and Carry
1941 Lend-Lease Act 1940 Germany invades...
Norway
Denmark
France
Belgium
Holland
Luxemburg Atlantic Charter Germany invades France!
Maginot Line proved to be useless
Divided France into German occupied France and Vichy France
Resistance formed
Dunkirk
Germany forces the evacuation French and British forces
During 9 days, over 340,000 troops were saved -- largest evacuation in history FDR – “a date that will live in infamy.”
Dec. 8, 1941 - U.S. declares war on Japan
Germany and Italy declare war on U.S. Global War Okinawa (April, 1945)
All 110,000 Japanese defenders killed
U.S. invaded this island - provide a staging area for the invasion of the Japanese islands. A Grinding War in the Pacific In 1945, the U.S. began targeting people in order to coerce Japan to surrender
66 major Japanese cities bombed
500,000 civilians killed A Grinding War
in the Pacific Battle for Leyte Gulf
Total blockade of Japan
Japanese navy virtually destroyed
Kamikaze (divine wind) flights begin A Grinding War
in the Pacific Midway (June 1942)
Japanese Admiral Yamamoto hoped to capture Midway Island as a base to attack Pearl Harbor again
U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz caught the Japanese by surprise and sank 3 of the 4 aircraft carriers, 332 planes, and 3500 men The Pacific Theater:
Early Battles The Battle of Stalingrad
The German Army had already lost 2 million men on the eastern front.
In 1942-43, a German army of over 300,000 was defeated and captured at the Battle of Stalingrad.
The Red Army crossed into Poland in January 1944. Turning Points of the War:
Eastern Front Long fight weakens Germany
Mussolini flees to Germany Invasion of Italy By the end of 1942, the Allies faced defeat.
Weak presence in North Africa
British interested in maintaining Middle Eastern control – oil supply Gloomy Prospects for the Allied Powers Dwight “IKE” Eisenhower – Commander of Allied troops
Bernard Montgomery – Commander of British forces
George Patton – Commander of US 3rd Army (Tank Division)
aka – Old Blood and Guts
Archrival with Montgomery LEADERS The war effort required all of America’s huge productive capacity and full employment of the workforce.
U.S. budget increases
1940 $9 million to $100 million in 1944 Mobilization In the U.S. Farmers who resisted collectives, had food confiscated forcing millions to starve
5 million were sent to Siberia
“Purified” the communist party
“Show Trials” - GUILTY Great Purge Ruler of Soviet Union (1924)
“Great Leap Forward” – industrialize Soviet Union
Great Purge (1934) punishment of political and citizen dissidents Josef Stalin With the Japanese attack on the U.S., World War II became a global war.
The U.S. would enter the war against the Axis powers and concentrate on Europe. Global War Later the same day, Japan attacks the Philippines, Guam, and Midway and attacks British forces in Hong Kong and the Malay Peninsula (Singapore) December 7, 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor in Hawaii
U.S. fleet caught unprepared
2400 sailors died, 1200 wounded,18 ships sunk, and 160 aircraft damaged and 200 destroyed.
USS Arizona
aircraft carriers were away on maneuvers December 7, 1941 Late Nov., 1941 – U.S. learns Japanese Armada leaves Japan – awaiting attack??
Dec. 6, Japan breaks off negotiations, refusing to leave China Decision for War “Hull Note” delivered on
Nov. 26, 1941
Restated U.S. demands to leave China
Tojo sees note as ultimatum and further diplomacy was futile.
public opinion was behind the decision for war Decision for War Problems:
U.S. insists on withdrawal from China
1940 - Japan’s alliance with Germany and Italy (Tripartite Pact)
Japan and Germany fought separate wars - they never coordinated strategies. Japanese Expansion Japan established an empire
Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere
Japanese racial purity and supremacy
Treated Chinese and Koreans with brutality.
“Rape of Nanjing”- Japanese slaughtered at least 300,000 civilians within 6 weeks Pacific Theater Possibly successful if Hitler hadn’t pushed through Russian winter
Supply lines broken during winter
Equipment failure
Soviet land
Soviets receiving aid from US under Lend-lease Hitler says,
“Maintain Offensive!” Hitler invaded the Soviet Union.
On June 22, 1941, Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa, consisting of an attack army of 4 million men spread out along a 2,000-mile front in three massive offensives. Invasion of the Soviet Union Hitler expected Britain to make peace -- Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, refused to surrender.
Hitler proceeded with invasion plans
The Luftwaffe began massive attacks on Britain to destroy its air defenses. The Battle of Britain General Charles de Gaulle escaped to London & organized the Free France forces
Britain now stood alone against Germany The Fall of France Intensive air raids over Japan
Iwo Jima (February, 1945)
American marines invaded this island, which was needed as an airbase for bombings over Japan The Beginning of the
End in the Pacific Japanese fight until death
Did not play by the rules
Japanese learned they were not invincible
Win in Solomon's gained confidence for Americans
Begin march to Japan Guadalcanal The Japanese defeat at Midway was the turning point in the Pacific.
Japanese advances stopped.
U.S. assumes initiative.
Japanese have shortage of able pilots.
Censorship and Propaganda
News of the defeat was kept from the Japanese public. Importance of Midway American Forces halted the Japanese advances in two decisive naval battles.
Coral Sea (May 1942)
U.S. stopped a fleet convoying Japanese troops to New Guinea
Japanese sights on Australia ended The Pacific Theater:
Early Battles 4/12/1945 – FDR dies during his 4th term
Harry Truman becomes President
Germany surrendered unconditionally on May 8, 1945 (V-E Day)
Allies discover concentration camps Victory in Europe Mussolini was captured and killed by Italian partisans and Hitler committed suicide in April 1945, as the Russian troops took Berlin. Victory in Europe The British, U.S., and Free French armies began to press into western Germany as the Soviets invaded eastern Germany.
Both sides raced to Berlin. Race to Berlin Hitler’s last attempt to defeat Allies
Creates “bulge” in allied lines before turned back
Germans told to fight to death Battle of the Bulge Invasion successful. 5,000 killed and wounded Allied troops.
It allowed them to gain a foothold on the continent from which they could push Germany back. D-Day: Operation Overlord The Allied needed to establish a second front.
General Dwight Eisenhower launched an invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944.
An invasion fleet of 4,000 ships and 150,000 men D-Day: Operation Overlord Largest amphibious invasion in history
Germany believed they would invade further North D-Day: Operation Overlord Defeat of the Axis Powers
The turning point of the war came in 1942-43.
Allied victory in North Africa was followed by an invasion of Italy, which stopped the Axis powers’ string of victories – SOFT UNDERBELLY The Turn of the
Tide in Europe Agree to open 2nd front
Soviets agree to deal the Germany first then will help US with Japan Teheran Conference 1943 President of the United States (1932-1945)
4 terms
Stricken with polio
Wheelchair bound Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) Wartime Prime Minister of Great Britain
Hitler’s nemesis
Orator, leader, politician, historian Winston Churchill (1874-1965) Strategies for War - Defeat Germany first Great Britain
Winston Churchill
U.S.
FDR
Soviet Union
Josef Stalin The Big Three FOUR FREEDOMS
Speech
Religion
From want
Of fear
Hitler first, then Japan Atlantic Charter U.S. freezes Japanese assets and starts embargo
U.S. cuts off sale oil, scrap metal and other resources
Over 80 percent of its oil came from U.S. & imports 66% of goods
RESPONSE: PEARL HARBOR Oil Embargo Japan to establish an empire
Severely affected by depression
Needed resources and land for growing population
Going to free Asia from European influences Pacific Theater Luftwaffe vs. Royal Air Force (RAF) What General Weygand has called the Battle of France is over. The Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of
Christian civilization. Upon it depends our own British life, and the long
continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and might of
the enemy must very soon be turned on us.
Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this Island or lose the war. If we
can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and the life of the world may
move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole
world, including the United States, including all that we have known and
cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and
perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science.
Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that if
the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men
will still say, 'This was their finest hour.'
Winston Churchill - June 18, 1940 “Their finest hour” French citizens who ran an underground operation to help sabotage the Germans and assist the allies
Very helpful
during D-day French Resistance The U.S. was in a depression
Russia was finishing its revolution
France alone was left to hold Germany down.
Nazi propaganda in the U.S. and Britain portrayed Hitler as the best check on Communist Russia. Where were the
Allied Powers? Hitler sought to unite the German people -- “Protecting the 10 million Germans living outside the Reich”
In 1935, Hitler declared that Germany was no longer bound by the Versailles treaty and began to rearm Hitler’s Foreign Policy Aims Emperor Hirohito surrenders on Aug. 14, 1945. (V-J Day)
Formal surrender signed on September 2 onboard the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay Turning Points
of the War: The Pacific August 6, 1945 – Enola Gay drops
bomb on Hiroshima
140,000 dead; tens of thousands injured; radiation sickness; 80% of buildings destroyed
August 9, 1945 – Nagasaki
70,000 dead; 60,000 injured Turning Points
of the War: The Pacific FDR had funded the top-secret Manhattan Project to develop an atomic bomb
Dr. Robert Oppenheimer successfully tested in the summer of 1945.
FDR had died on April 12, 1945, and the decision was left to Harry Truman.
An amphibious invasion could cost over 1,000,000 casualties – fight till death! Atom Diplomacy We take the beaches!
Gold, Sword & Juno – British and Canadians
Utah & Omaha – American D-Day: Operation Overlord The German army quickly advanced, but at a terrifying cost
90 percent of German deaths would happen on the eastern front Operation Barbarossa                     British pilots could be returned and flying again within hours
“Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed to so few” Why didn’t Germany win? Japanese prime minister 1941-1944
1944-- appointed self Chief of Staff
July 1944-- forced to resign
tried as war criminal and executed in 1948 Hideki Tojo (1884-1948)                     Britain held firm during the Blitz despite devastating destruction to English cities.
The British resistance convinced Hitler to postpone the invasion but he continued the bombing attacks. Battle of Britain VS. Operation Torch (1943)
Allied victory in North Africa and invasion of Italy. Turning Points of the War: Western Front
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