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Why was World war II considered a total war?
Transcript of Why was World war II considered a total war?
A war which is
in terms of the
or combatants involved, or the
pursued, especially one in which
the laws of war are disregarded
"..There is another more obvious difference from 1914. The whole of the warring nations are engaged, not only soldiers, but the entire population, men, women and children.”
- Winston Churchill
War preparations were made everywhere.
Economy in America
Rations and Substitutions
"Silvapages." Total War and Effects--WWII. Silvapages, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2014.
"Total War." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2014.
Overy, Richard. "About The Second World War--by Richard Overy." About The Second World War--by Richard Overy. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2014.
"WWii and Total War." WWii and Total War. Slideshare, 2012. Web. 26 Nov. 2014.
"WOMEN IN WWII AT A GLANCE:." The National WWII Museum. National WWII Museum, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2014.
"American Women in World War II." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2014.
"Women in World War Two." Women in World War Two. History Learning Site, n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2014.
"Roles for Women in WWII." Ergo. State Library of Victoria, n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2014.
Barrow, Mandy. "Women during World War 2 (WW2)." Women during World War 2 (WW2). N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2014.
"Civilian Casualties of World War Two". HistoryLearningSite.co.uk. 2014. Web.
"Teaching History.org, Home of the National History Education Clearinghouse." The Auto Industry Goes to War. George Mason University, n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2014.
London, Ricks. Foreign Policy. Digital image. FP. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
World War II. Digital image. German Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
Rationed Tires During World War II. Digital image. Defense Media Network. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
Mechanised Conveyer Lines. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
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Young Men Registering for Military Conscription. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2014.
“It was not just the military that went to war, it was the entire nation.”
Why Was World war II
considered a "total war"?
made up most of the workforce
volunteered for the red army (latter having three regiments: two bombers & one fighter)
Russia - Germany = all German women were raped by Soviet soldiers.
Stalin: "letting our boys have a little fun.”
Propaganda was used to
"psychologically prepare civilians for wartime sacrifices"
All businesses had to convert to military production in order to sustain the demands
The Lend Lease Act 0f 1941
Total war does mean the
near-total mobilization of the population
. All are expected to do their part to help with the 'war effort.'
Women and children fought in uniform alongside men; regiments of Soviet women fought in the Red Army's advance on Berlin. Hundreds of thousands of women and children died in the front line of the air war in the bombing of Germany and Japan. Throughout the conflict more civilians were killed than soldiers.
played a key role in war industries
estimated 350,000 women joined uniformed groups: Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps, Marine Corps Women’s Reserve & Navy Nurse Corps
women in uniform took office & clerical jobs the armed forces in order to free men to fight
drove trucks, repaired airplanes, worked as laboratory technicians, rigged parachutes, served as radio operators, analyzed photographs, flew military aircraft across the country, test-flew newly repaired planes, and even trained anti-aircraft artillery gunners by acting as flying targets
some served near the front lines in the Army Nurse Corps (16 were killed - direct enemy fire)
The war changed the world of work for women for ever. When men went to fight, women were called upon to fill their jobs, and this included many jobs that were previously thought of unsuitable for women.
The United States
Rosie the Riveter
US government campaign to recruit female workers for munition industries
Working in Factories (Making Bombs and Aircraft Parts)
Air Raid Wardens
Driving Fire Engines
640,000 in the armed forces
55,000 serving with guns and providing essential air defense
80,000 thousand in the Land Army
many more who flew unarmed aircraft, drove ambulances, worked as nurses and worked behind enemy lines in the European resistance
3 Main Topics:
In WWI civilian casualties accounted for 1/10 of deaths, whereas in WWII they made up 2/3 of deaths.
Total civilian casualties: 30,497,000 out of 55,014,000 (including military casualties) (History Learning Site)
"Racial aspect of fighting increased the wars probability of becoming a total war because entire civilian populations were targeted"
Total War (In Reference to Civilians)
3 Main Reasons:
“The civilian workforce was mobilized to support war efforts”
1. Factories Retooled
“The most important single task before the nation is the rapid conversion of the automobile industry to war production.” —R. J. Thomas, president United Automobile Workers
The auto industry, under massive contracts issued by the government were retooled to manufacture:
Conscription (or drafting)
is the compulsory enlistment of people in some sort of national service, most often military service.
The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940:
Restrictions/Loss of food and other material goods
The fact that almost all resources and all people were involved in WWII from the nations involved, in reference to civilians, women and the military, make it evident of being a total war.