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Amethyst

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Ryan Nguyen

on 1 December 2013

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Transcript of Amethyst

Amethyst
Colour
Pale lilac
Violet
Mauve
Atomic weight
Si= 28.085 ≈ 28
O2= 15.999 ≈ 16 for each.There's 2 oxygen, Therefore, 16 x 2 = 32
Atomic formula
O2
Silicon
Oxygen
Hardness
Amethyst is ranked 7th on the Mohs hardness scale which is equivalent to its purest form quartz. Moreover, being the 7th hardest mineral, shows that itself is a sturdy mineral, as of course it has the ability to scratch glass.
Mineral class
Amethyst is classified as one out of 30% of all minerals is in the mineral class "Silicates". This class is thought to be the largest mineral class as some geologist estimate that 90% of the Earth's crust is made up of silicates. Silicates is a class that is made up of silicon and oxygen which are the main elements that make up the Earth. Therefore, there is no doubt to why this class is the largest.
Crystal habit
Amethyst has many forms of crystal habits and is often have bulging groups of pyramids, on a matrix (a rock or mineral that has crystals grow from it) base. These pyramids are quite large as it can occur in many forms. Elongated is one of the forms, which one side is longer than the other. Short prismatic (like prism shape) is also a another form in which druzes in volcanic rocks. This form is often have its prism faces not develop at all. At many locations in the Alps, where highly metamorphic and igneous rocks are found, Amethyst grows as scepters on top of rock crystals and usually striated horizontally which tiny parallel line growths on crystal surfaces.
Where it can be found
History of Amethyst - the Roman God Bacchus
What Amethyst uses for
Suffice -ite & -ine
Suffix "–ite" comes from the Greek word meaning rock or stone.
Karpatite
Suffix "–ine" means relating to.
Citrine
Thank you for your time!
Introduction
Amethyst is a popular mineral and gemstone. It has the colour of purple which is known as one of the valuable and prized variety of quartz. Its name comes from the Greek "amethystos" which means "not drunken". It receives this name because in ancient time, it was thought to ward off drunkenness. In these days, Amethyst specimens from certain areas slowly faded due to excessive exposure to light. In addition, when used as a gemstone, Amethyst is usually heated to transform it into Citrine which is another variety of quartz. Some varities may also transform to a light green colour, which is given the name "Prasiolite" or "Green Amethyst".
Amethyst was originally colourless mineral which we called quartz. However, due to the impurity of iron and aluminium, its colour has changed to a range of different shades of purple, such as pale lilac, mauve, violet and red-violet. The deeper the colour the more valuable it is, particularly a rich purple with rose flashes. An example of such high price amethyst is "Siberian" deep purple amethyst with red and blue flash.
Common colours
Silicon
Dioxide
Total atomic weight= 28 + 32
= 60
Si
Oxygen
-
Silicon
Amethyst's main element is Silicon with the atomic number of 14; the symbol of Si and the atomic mass of 28.085.
Electron structure
Main element
Lustre, streak, cleavage and transparency
If we observe amethyst's closely, we could see that it is very shiny, like a glass. Therefore, It has a vitreous surface.
Lustre:
Streak:
If we crushed amethyst we'll see white dust. As a result, amethyst has white streak.
Cleavage:
It will not break evenly in the same pattern each time. Hence, it has no cleavage.
Transparency:
Amethyst's transparency is from opaque to transparent. Therefore, If we look through it, we might see through, or blurry or not able to see at all. Because of these, the transparency is really depend on the deepness of the colour.
Subclass & chemical structure
Amethyst is often be found in one of the subclass of "Silicates" known as "Tectosilicates". This subclass is known as the framework silicates because it has a very strong and stable structure which is made up of interconnected tetrahedrons (triangle pyramids) pointing outward in all directions. Therefore, this formed a similar framework to large building. In this subclass, all of the oxygen are shared with other tetrahedrons which gives ratio of 1:2, a silicon to oxygen respectively. Furthermore, it is estimate that nearly 75% of the Earth's crust is made up of minerals of the tectosilicate class. The reason to this is because the aluminium ion can exchange for the silicon ion easily, in which creating a -5 charge in the crystal instead of the normal -4 charge. Since the charge must be balanced, extra cations (positive charge ions) are needed. This is the major principle to changing structures and therefore, this is has led to the creation of many different types of minerals.
Prismatic
Bipyramidal
Complex Bipyramidal
Modified Prismatic Bipyramidal
Complex Prismatic
Amethyst can be found in two areas of Mexican. Vera Cruz and Guerro. Vera Cruz has very pale, clear, prismatic crystals that are grown on light rock as well as having two six-sides pyramids at either end (double terminated). These crystals are usually have phantoms in which a white interior and an purple exterior. In the other Guerrero has dark purple and often have the opposite phantoms to Vera Cruz as its amethyst has purple interior with a clear white exterior. Due to the deepness colour of Guerrero's amethyst, its crystals are way more valuable than Vera Cruz's amethyst.
Large quantities of fine cut Amethyst come from three localities of Brazil, Minas Gerais Rio Grande do Sul and Bahaia. The crystals form in druzy (pointed crystals) are only coloured at the top of the crystals. Their colours are usually range from light to medium.
Large geodes (hollow rocks filled with crystals) are also produced in another South American country, Uruguay. These crystals are formed in druzy crusts and had the colour of dark to medium. The crystals have an interior of gray and an exterior of brown. The crystals are coloured throughout and occasionally form with bright colours band.
Canada is also well known for its Amethyst pebbles, which are found on beaches along the Bay of Fundy, and unique red hematite crystals that found below the crystals surface.
Zambia and South Africa produce large amounts of Amethyst. These crystals are large but not attractive. However, the interior color and clarity are excellent. Therefore, many beads and gemstones are made from them.
Amethysts are also come from countries such as Italy, Germany and Russia. Italy produce large parallel growth clusters with even color. Germany crystals have beautiful, colorful bands that forms a light colored druzy crust. In the Ural Mountains, Russia, crystals are very clear and dark which is usually cut into expensive gemstones.
According to the writers in the ancient time, amethysts were seen as am antidote to drunkenness. Therefore, its name is originated from a Greek word meaning "without intoxicated". The Greek Philosopher Aristotle told that Amethyst is also the name of a beautiful woman who unluckily crossed the path of angry tigers that the God of wine, Bacchus, unleashed to attack the mortal that insulted him. The Goddess of the hunt, the moon and birthing, Diana wanted to protect Amethyst and turned her into a pure quartz. Bacchus regretted with what he had caused and wept tears of wine over the stone. The tears caused the stone to become purple as well as giving it the quality of keeping its wearers from drunken.
Egyptian people often used amethysts as
Charms. The soldiers wore amethyst as amulets for success in their battle and calmness in danger. The author Pliny from the ancient Roman said the Magi (men from the East who brought gifts to the baby Jesus) believed that if the symbols of the Sun and Moon were carved on the Amethyst, it will create a powerful charm against witchcraft and also gave its wearers good luck, great power as well as helped them in succeeding their desires.
History of Amethyst - Egyptian and Roman
Amethyst is known as the stone of St. Valentine, who was thought to have always worn it. In the days of romance and chivalry during the Middle Ages, if an amethyst was presented as the shape shape of a heart set in silver by a lady to her knight, or a bride to her husband, it was said to grant the greatest possible happiness on the pair who would be blessed with good fortune for the rest of their lives.
History of Amethyst - Saint Valentine
Far back to the ancient days, Amethysts were used as part of church decorations. It was usually used in Episcopal rings which gave it a description as "the Bishop's Stone". Rosaries consisted of amethyst beads were also used to sooth stress and calm their wearers. In religious, it was looked as an emblem of trust and resignation to sufferings and sorrows.
History of Amethyst - churhces
Amethyst is a perfect stone for diplomats, negotiators and businessman because it can calm angry personality and gives an advantage in debating situations. When wearing or holding an Amethyst, it allows you to bring in spiritual insights and helps you interpret it. As a prosperity crystal with good fortune, Amethyst is also excellent for reducing the habit of overspending, gambling addictions and unwise investments.
Amethyst is one of the most effective crystals for healing people, plants and animals. Natural Amethyst or geodes are specifically helpful when place where plants will not grow or animals refuse to sit. It is also used to block negative earth energies beneath buildings or anywhere that feels uncomfortable.
Amethyst can protect against psychic attack, paranormal harm and return these negative energies back to the universe as positive, loving energy. Some people want to maximised this power and good luck, they draw over an Amethyst in lavender incense smoke with an image of the sun and the crescent of moon.
Amethyst can calms, soothes and help the transmission of neural signals through the brain. Hence, it is referred to as "nature tranquilizer". It helps relieve addictive disorder and hyperactivity (a condition of restlessness and movement) in children animals. It also can cure insomnia and give you pleasant dreams by placing it under the pillow, mattress or rub counter-clockwise on the centre of the forehead. in addition, it is especially effective in alleviate homesickness and for children who have recurring nightmares and fears of the dark.
"Citr-" is the prefix from the word citrus, which has the colour of orange and yellow.

Therefore, citrine is a crystal that has the colour of the citrus fruits.
References and sources
http://www.galleries.com/Eudialyte

http://www.gemstoneeducation.com/Amethyst.htm

http://www.galleries.com/minerals/property/habits.htm

http://www.crystalvaults.com/crystal-encyclopedia/amethyst

http://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/amethyst-for-a-nervous-habit.html

http://www.jewelinfo4u.com/Amethyst_Crystal_Structure.aspx

http://www.minerals.net/mineral/amethyst.aspx

http://www.minerals.net/mineral_glossary/prismatic.aspx

http://www.gemselect.com/gem-info/amethyst/amethyst-info.php

http://www.coloradogem.com/index.php?display=Amethyst_Gemstones


http://bluphire.com/birthstone/february-birthstone

http://www.quartzpage.de/amethyst.html

http://fengshui.about.com/od/Crystals/qt/What-Is-Amethyst-Crystal-Power.htm

http://www.ptable.com/

http://www.mineralogy4kids.org/tectosilicates.html

http://www.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/tectosil.htm

http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00461/amethyst.htm

http://www.galleries.com/minerals/symmetry/trigonal.htm

http://www.mindat.org/article.php/905/Amethyst+Specimens

http://www.gemstoneeducation.com/Amethyst.htm
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