**Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz**

Education

-During his University days, philosophy was taught better than mathematics.

-Moved to Jena during summer 1663, to study deeper about mathematics.

-In 1664, he applied again at University of Leipzig for doctorate of law, but he wasn't accepted due to his young age(20).

-He moved to live in Nuremberg permanently, to pursue studying at University of Altdorf.

Leibniz's contributions to Math

-In 1672, he invented a mechanical calculating machine called "Stepped Reckoner" that can add, subtract, multiply, and divide but he didn't complete it until 1694.

-During his stay in Paris(1672-1676), Christian Huygens helped him more with math. By the end of his stay, he invented Calculus.

-He created notations for Integral and Differential Calculus.

Controversy between Leibniz and Newton

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Born: July 1, 1646

Birthplace: Leipzig, Germany

Died: November 14, 1716 (70)

Location of Death: Hanover, Germany

Cause of Death: Unknown

Religion: Lutheran

Nationality: German

Occupation: Mathematician and Philosopher

Accomplishment in Math: Co-invented Calculus

-Came from an educated family.

-His father was a professor of moral philosophy while his mother was a daughter of a rich local lawyer.

-He has a sister named Anna Catharina.

-Father died when he was six years old.

-Entered school at the age of seven, taught Latin.

-He excelled in Latin by the age of 12, and taught himself Greek.

-In 1661, he entered University of Leipzig to study philosophy and mathematics.

-He never married anyone, his life was dedicated to studies.

Personal Life

-Newton and Leibniz both discovered calculus around the same time.

-Some said Newton invented it first, but Leibniz's way was better.

-Leibniz published his way in 1684, but started working on it in 1674.

-The controversy was about Newton accusing Leibniz of plagiarizing his work, or Leibniz got his main idea from Newton.

-The controversy stopped when the Royal Society proclaimed that Newton is the father of calculus.

-Before Leibniz died, he wrote a letter

saying a fellow mathematician showed

him some of Newtons work, but did not

copy or plagiarized his work.

Calculus

Reference:

<http://www.maths.tcd.ie/pub/HistMath/People/Leibniz/RouseBall/RB_Leibnitz.html> "Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz"

<http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/leibniz/> "Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz" Jul. 24, 2013

<http://www.math.rutgers.edu/courses/436/Honors02/leibniz.html> "The Mathematical Leibniz". Ari Pattanayak.

<http://history-computer.com/People/LeibnitzBio.html> "Biography of Gottfried Leibniz"

<http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Leibniz.html> "Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz". J J O'Connor and E F Robertson. October 1998

<http://math.about.com/cs/calculus/g/calculusdef.htm> "Calculus Definition". Deb Russel.

<https://www.khanacademy.org/math/calculus/differential-calculus> "Talking Derivatives"

<https://www.khanacademy.org/math/calculus/integral-calculus> "Indefinite and Definite Integrals"

Niña Jamaica Bodino

-Mathematical study of how things change.

-There are two main fields in Calculus; Integral and Differential Calculus.

Differential Calculus: it is when you have to find the rate of change of a quantity.

Integral Calculus: it is when you determine the quantity while the rate of change in known.

-When it's integral calculus there will always be a "∫" sign in the notation. Leibniz also invented this symbol, it represent "S" or "summation". It is called a Unicode.