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AP Bio- Interactions 1: Organism Organization

1 of 6 of my Interactions Domain. Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The InternetProvided under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. By David Knuffke
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David Knuffke

on 11 January 2015

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Transcript of AP Bio- Interactions 1: Organism Organization

Organism Organization
Unicellular
Multicellular
Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic
Fungi
Plants
Animals
Major functions are anchorage, and nutrient/water absorption.
Can be modified for other purposes
All physiological processes occur at the cellular level of organization.

Unicellular organisms can interact with other organisms to increase their physiological efficiency, which is how we will usually encounter them in this unit.
Prokaryotes are limited in physiological complexity due to the lack of membrane-bound organelles
Some prokaryotic species have modified the cell membrane to specialize in particular nutritional modes.
All physiology has to occur in a relatively uniform cellular environment
Some prokaryotes demonstrate physiological modes that are unique among organisms.
Unicellular eukaryotes are able to utilize membrane-bound organelles to compartmentalize the cell.

Compartmentalization allows for more regulation of cellular conditions and a wider diversity of physiological processes to occur in the cell.
Do not underestimate the impact of unicellular eukaryotes.
While fungi are multicellular, they have limited cellular differentiation.
Because of this, physiology remains largely a function of the
cellular level
of organization.
We will mostly encounter them in their interactions with other organisms.
Plants demonstrate differentiation of cells.
Plant physiology can be understood in terms of
tissue-level
,
organ-level
, and even relatively simple
systems-level
organization.
2 Systems
3 Organs
Cells & Tissues
Animals generally demonstrate a greater degree of cellular differentiation than plants.
Because of this, animals demonstrate the greatest diversity of tissue-level, organ-level, and systems-level organization.
Cells & Tissues
Always!
3 Types of Plant Cells
Most of a plant's cells are
parenchymal
cells.

Parenchymal
cells are responsible for photosynthesis, while
collenchyma
and
sclerenchyma
provide structure and support.

Schlerenchymal
cell walls are filled with
lignin
, a structural polymer. The lignification process leads to the death of the sclerenchymal cells at their functional maturity.
3 Types of Plant Tissues
Dermal
Ground
Vascular
Specialized parenchyma. Includes
stomates
& a waxy layer ("
cuticle
") to prevent dessication.
Includes all three cell types. Involved in photosynthesis (at leaves), storage of food, support of plant,
Not found in bryophytes. Contains specialized cells that comprise the
Xylem
and
Phloem
of the plant.
Xylem
Phloem
transport water.
Made of
tracheids
and
vessel elements
.
dead at functional maturity.
transport carbohydrates.
Made of
sieve-tube elements
and
companion cells
.
sieve-tube elements are dead at functional maturity.
companion cells regulate sieve-tube element function.
Leaf
Major function is photosynthesis.
Can be modified for other functions.
Stem
Major functions are support & transport.
Can be modified for other functions.
Root
Shoot
Root
All above-ground parts of the plant.

Photosynthesis, floral reproduction, etc.
All below-ground parts of the plant.

nutrient/water absorption, etc.
Epithelial Tissue
Connective Tissue
Tissue that lines the body.
Can have a wide variety of structures and functions (absorption, protection, sensation, cleaning, secretion, excretion, etc).

Separated from other tissues by a "
basement membrane
"
Fibrous tissue that provides structure and support.

Includes
bone
,
cartilage
,
blood
,
adipose
("fat") tissue,
ligaments
and
tendons
Muscular Tissue
Responsible for locomotion both internally and externally.

Three major types:
Skeletal
("
striated
")- includes all voluntary movement.
cardiac
- special muscle that comprises the heart.
smooth
- lines organs and the gastrointestinal tract, responsible for
peristalsis
.
Nervous Tissue
Responsible for coordination and control of the body.

Comprised of
neurons
and
glial cells
.
Organs & Systems
Animal tissues are arranged into
organs
.

These organs comprise
organ-systems
that allow for the animal to accomplish life functions.
Homeostasis
: The internal, "steady-state" condition needed to remain alive.

The nervous system monitors conditions and effects responses that maintain homeostasis through the functions of organ systems.
The physiological processes at work in any organism are constrained by the environment and adapted by evolution.
Example 1:
Materials Exchange
Unicellular and microscopic organisms are able to exchange materials directly with their environment

Plants and animals have evolved adaptations to accomplish these exchanges internally (usually through maximizing surface area)
Example 2:
Energy Considerations
The energetic considerations of an organism's environment have consequences for physiology and behavior.
Example 3:
Convergence
Similar environmental constraints often result in similar adaptive solutions.
Make sure you can:
Big Questions:
How are the structures of an organism related to their functions?

How is physiology accomplished accross multiple levels of organization in an organism?

How does the environment constrain an organism's physiology?
Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities rely on chemoautotrophic bacteria for energy.
A paramecium
Diatoms: Responsible for the production of perhaps 33% of all atmospheric oxygen
"
Fruiting Body
"
Mycellium
Diversity of fungal mycellial hyphae:
Septate
: Cells are separated by cell wall compartment ("septa")
Coenocytic
: Cells are all fused together into a multi-nucleate structure

That's about as interesting as things get in fungi-land
Explain how multicellularity allows for increased levels of organization in an organism.

Identify the cells, tissues, organs, and systems present in plants and animals and explain their physiological functions, and their contributions to homeostasis.

Provide examples of how an organism's environment places constraints on its physiology.
The animation is a bit cheesy, but still...
click here to play these clips!
Don't click the big play button in the middle of my face or I will pause when you advance!
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Full transcript