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Urban Planning LSC 5010 - Urban development in Sheffield Social housing and the Garden City Movement
Transcript of Urban Planning LSC 5010 - Urban development in Sheffield Social housing and the Garden City Movement
a balance between built and natural environment
community, shared spaces, allotments
interlocking of multiple garden cities
local shops and places of work
placemaking and neighbourhood character
lack of work places on the estate (longer commute)
failure in maintenance and management
green belt destroyed rather than preserved
undefined ownership of green/shared spaces 1800s 2000s 1900s [1914-1918] WORLD WAR I 1946 - 1964 Baby boom 1955 - 1960 clearance and rebuilding programme. [1959 - 1961] Park Hill  Upperthorpe Flats  Woodside-Burngreave 1998 Park Hill listed as a Grade 2 building 2004 Urban Splash is selected to regenerate Park Hill 1876 Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone 1814 George Stephenson designs first locomotive 1984 -85 Miners' Strike 1930s Recession 1990s Meadowhall shopping centre built 2007 - 1 in 100 Flood 2010 Big Freeze 1893 Crown grants Sheffield, 'City' title 1875 The first planned development 1900 1935 1951 1911 Sheffield is 5th largest city in GB
In 1951 the city proposed to extend it's boundaries once more.
However the Sheffield Extension Bill was rejected. Any new growth had to be contained within the city boundaries. Steel Industry is established
Population has trebled in the last 50 years(400,000)
Sheffield is now a 'city'
Housing Boom to support increasing population The Garden City Movement "...by so laying out a Garden City that, as it grows, the free gifts of Nature- fresh air, sunlight, breathing room and playing room - shall be still retained in all needed abundance." (Ebenezer Howard 1902)
Garden City key values:
- Appreciation of nature and a high level of residential amenity
Commerce and trade
- Access to services, facilities and commerce
- Access to safe, pleasant housing, opportunities for social interaction and to participate in the community. [1930s] Manor Estate  Terraced Housing  Medium density social housing + "green buffer"  Demolition in 2004 - open green spaces Plan for medium rise 2-5 story flats and 15 story tower flats alongside shops, pubs and a community centre. [1960s] Mixed high and medium density social housing in Woodside-Burngreave surrounded by open green space. [1960s] First stage of development.  Terraced Housing  High rise flats in open parkland  Demolished in 1995 and replaced with low density housing. Parkland remains. Kelvin Flats followed the high density "streets in the sky" model of Park Hill.  Terraced Housing  High density flats in open parkland  Park Hill undergoing restoration [1950s] Park Hill Clearance Program Radical modern housing design based on European Flats Alternative medium density design scheme, including medium rise flats, maisonettes and terraced housing. [1959-1961] Parkhill constructed  Terraced housing slums, over 100 years old  Design to clear slums to reestablish green space in the city. Terraced housing replaced by high rise flats and maisonettes with inner courtyards.  partial slum clearance reveals an inner-city open space accompanied by new high rise flats.  Terraced Housing  The Pondarosa and Upperthorpe Flats  Sheffield Green City As Sheffield expands it engulfs surrounding towns and villages. [1967-1995] Kelvin Flats  Rural landscape with linear development  Low density housing with gardens  Demolition. Surrounded by open green space Social Housing and the Garden City Movement in Sheffield We will explore -
3 key periods of city expansion
Driving forces: World wide and local context
Case studies that illustrate these periods
How it has affected the Urban Fabric of Sheffield? [1939-1945] WORLD WAR II A number of areas were cleared in the 1980s and subsequently re-built with new council and Housing Association properties giving the area various building styles.
As the estate was rebuilt more of the Garden City principles were lost due to a lack of cohesive vision, various scattered building styles and dead spaces between buildings and road junctions.
There are still large areas to be rebuilt and the open space reduces neighbourhood surveillance. To reduce crime, some roads have been blocked off to stop through traffic. ...meanwhile... As a result the city built high density housing in the city centre.
High-rise social housing on open public spaces and slum clearance sites became the favored typology for housing during the 50s and 60s.
Although proposed densities were often higher than recommended, this strategy was accepted due to the amount of land preserved. The expansion of Sheffield's boundaries continues, obliterating ancient boundaries in the south, to include Totley, Dore, Beauchief and Greenhill
To alleviate overcrowding in central Sheffield, low density housing estates were built on green belt land outside the city (urban sprawl)
These new developments followed some of the ideals of the Garden City Movement, even if it did not fully comprehend the full vision After World War I the heavy industries of Sheffield entered a recession causing severe unemployment in the 20s and 30s.
However that era also marked the beginning of large-scale slum clearance.
The first council houses were built in Sheffield at that time. Back to Back terraces continued to be the standard working class housing, it was relatively high density and in close proximity to industry. They were made from locally sourced brick and slate.
1899-1910 Tram lines constructed allowing people to escape the overcrowded city
House building slackens - 1914 housing shortage
No provision of public facilities and green space
Appalling housing conditions, pollution and disease
340 houses vs. 152 houses
High Density vs. Half Density
Small Back Yard vs. Generous Surrounding Green Space
The steel factories of Sheffield were set to work making weapons and ammunition for the war.
As a result the city became a target for bombing raids. Of 150,000 houses, 80,000 were damaged or destroyed.
The reduced housing and the post-war baby boom increased the demand for affordable housing. This put pressure on the city to expand again... Houses with front and back gardens clustered around a central open space.
Modern estates with vast amounts of green space compared to the city centre slums.
The streets had no trees and little consideration for local shops and public buildings.
The estate represents the transition of Sheffield Corporation developments from the grid iron patterns and tenement blocks of the 20th century, to the more spacious cottage estates that would become so characteristic of the 1930s. Pros:
Land preserving (new parks on former slums)
'Urban sprawl’ prevented
People close to work and the city
Affordable and quick to build
Modern services and utilities
New ‘parkland’ rarely used
The parks were anonymous - crime
Re-landscaping erased historical landscape
High-rise flats became “fortresses” and barriers
Density higher than recommended (sometimes double!)
Short life span (only 20 years in some cases)
responds sensitively to site
central public space, radial avenues and tree-lined boulevards
each street planted with different tree species
generous proportions of residential street frontages
max. density of 10 houses per acre
grass verges in the streetscape
provision of allotments and public institutions
surrounded by a zone of agricultural land ...in Letchworth... • balance between built and natural environment seeking to take the advantages that town and country can offer,
• town of human scale, with open space as the focal point of design,
• creating areas of community building and cooperation,
• good living and working environment for all,
• interlocking of multiple garden cities would facilitate cultural and social exchange among various groups of people, providing economic stimulus, entertainment, and atmosphere.
• stimulate economic growth through local shops, and work spaces,-shopping areas are the real socialising centers of everyday life in the modern world (ex. Café, etc.)
• the need to use distinctive types of housing, in order to create distinct neighborhoods within the community. The end effect is that of placemaking, a very important design concept to make residents feel more involved with their urban landscape.
• The Garden City concept should avoid the endless suburban sprawl where the building types are of the same sort, in endless rows and columns without pause. High Density Social Housing Sheffield: City on the Move Sheffield City promotional video 1971 What can we learn? What can we learn? [1950s] Park Hill Clearance Program Radical modern housing design based on European Flats Alternative medium density design scheme, including medium rise flats, maisonettes and terraced housing. Garden city Movement - Manor Estate Problems emerge The city evolved into a large jumble of narrow streets, factories and long convoluted tramlines, due to rapid growth and little planning.  Letchworth - the first Garden City http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~exy1/images/sheffield_growth.gif http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~exy1/images/sheffield_growth.gif Howard [1850 - 1928] [1955-1960]
Clearance and rebuilding programme Grid Iron Street Pattern vs. The Garden City Block http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~exy1/images/sheffield_growth.gif The new estates often ignored essential principles of the Garden City movement such as:
access to services, facilities and commerce
short commute towns
preservation of the natural landscape
This led to sprawling suburbs, which arguably destroy natural landscapes, relying heavily on transport and increasing commuter distances. ...for example... Until the 1930s, the area was mostly rural, with housing only along the main roads. Traditional back to back terraced housing with poor health and social conditions. Development of high density towers and medium density flats allows for green spaces within the city. The high density towers remain, but the medium density flats north and south of the pondarosa have been demolished in favour of lower density housing. Traditional back to back terraced housing, next to industrial areas. These sites have remained undeveloped despite being chosen as key sites of development by the council http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~exy1/images/sheffield_growth.gif http://www.britainfromabove.org.uk/image/epw018985 Sheffield City Council, n.d., Unidentified three storey house and pigsties, possibly central Sheffield. [image online] Available at: <http://www.picturesheffield.com/> [Accessed 8 October 2012]. http://s19.photobucket.com/albums/b171/sheffieldarchives/kelvin%20flats/?action=view¤t=KELVINBLUESKYvi.jpg&mediafilter=images#!oZZ89QQcurrentZZhttp%3A%2F%2Fs19.photobucket.com%2Falbums%2Fb171%2Fsheffieldarchives%2Fkelvin%2520flats%2F%3Faction%3Dview%26current%3Dwebreadykelvin.jpg%26mediafilter%3Dimages Google Maps Ariel Image sourced from Weston Bank Library, Sheffield Howard’s sketch diagram ‘Ward and Centre’ In: Miller, M. 2010. English Garden Cities. Swindon: English Heritage 1900 map sourced from Weston Bank Library, Sheffield Bacon, C. W., 1985. Park Hill in its social context. Sheffield: Department of Town and Regional Planning.
Hunter, J., 1869. Hallamshire: the history and topography of the parish of Sheffield in the county of York, with historical and descriptive notices of the parishes of Ecclesfield, Hansworth, Treeton, and Whiston, and of the chapelry of Bradfield. London: Virtue and Co.
Jorgensen, A. Chapter 4: History and context. The history of planned housing in the UK. Lecture of Introduction to Landscape Planning.
Onslow, J., ed. 1989. Garden Cities and New Towns. Suffolk: The Lavenham Press LtdMiller, M., 2010. English Garden Cities. Swindon: English Heritage
Sheffield (England). Housing Development Committee, 1962. Ten Years of Housing in Sheffield. Sheffield : City Architect's Department.
Umpleby, T., 2000. Water mills and furnaces on the Yorkshire Dearne and its tributaries. Wakefield: Wakefield Historical Publications.
Walton, M., 1984. Sheffield: its story and its achievements. Otley: Amethyst Press. Bibliography Sheffield Housing Development Committee, 1962. Ten Years of Housing in Sheffield. 'Nothing gained by overcrowding', 1912.In: Onslow, J. ed. 1989. Garden cities and New Towns. Suffolk: The Lavenham Press Ltd Sheffield Housing Development Committee, 1962. Ten Years of Housing in Sheffield. Sheffield Housing Development Committee, 1962. Ten Years of Housing in Sheffield. 1900 map sourced from Weston Bank Library, Sheffield The sinews of the Parker and Unwin layout for Letchworth, 2009. In: Miller, M. 2010. English Garden Cities. Swindon: English Heritage 1994 Ariel sourced from Weston Bank Library, Sheffield Google Maps Sheffield Housing Development Committee, 1962. Ten Years of Housing in Sheffield. Sheffield Housing Development Committee, 1962. Ten Years of Housing in Sheffield. Landmark Historic Map Data Supply, 1923. Sheffield. County Series, 1:2500 1854-1949. University of Edinburgh: EDINA Sheffield Housing Development Committee, 1962. Ten Years of Housing in Sheffield. Landmark Historic Map Data Supply, 1935. Sheffield. County Series, 1:2500 1854-1949. University of Edinburgh: EDINA Google Earth 2012. Manor Estate. Available through: <https://maps.google.co.uk/maps?q=manor,+sheffield&hl=en&ll=53.366136,-1.426034&spn=0.008054,0.020256&sll=52.8382,-2.327815&sspn=8.352012,20.742188&hq=manor,&hnear=Sheffield,+South+Yorkshire,+United+Kingdom&t=m&fll=53.368735,-1.428866&fspn=0.016106,0.040512&z=16&iwloc=J [Accessed 8 October 2012].