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Wool and Felting: Today, Yesterday and Techniques

Historical and Contemporary uses for Felt, also, methods
by

Zoe Krueger

on 27 May 2013

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Transcript of Wool and Felting: Today, Yesterday and Techniques

Today and Yesterday Felting Today felt is used in... Automotive industry

Home Construction

Musical Instruments

Story Telling

Fashion

Art and Sculpture Historically it has been used... to make housing and tents
clothing and hats
ceremonial dress
shoes and socks
saddles
carpets
blankets
boats
shields How it was "discovered" probably the oldest fabric known to man
easily made and non-woven
earliest felt remains date around 700BC
felt may have been produced as early as 6300BC How? Qualities of Felt! does not ravel or fray
can be made any size
can be hard or soft
very durable and resilient
excellent sound/vibration dampener
thermal insulating properties
awesome wicking properties
highly absorbent
renewable resource http://www.aetnafelt.com/felt_advantages.htm http://www.straw.com/tan/felt.html
originally an article in the CIBA Review 129, Nov. 1958 "Legend has it that during the Middle Ages St. Clement, who was to become the fourth bishop of Rome, was a wandering monk who happened upon the process of making felt by accident. It is said he stuffed his sandals with tow (short flax or linen fibers) in order to make them more comfortable. St. Clement discovered that the combination of moisture from perspiration and ground dampness coupled with pressure from his feet matted these tow fibers together and produced a cloth"




http://www.madehow.com/Volume-7/Felt.html Although the exact beginning of felting has not been discovered, Isabel B. Wingate and June F. Mohler write in “Textile Fabrics and Their Selection” that "early peoples" discovered the felting process. People wore the fur side of the animal skins on their bodies and once the bodies produced heat and perspiration, the fur matted into cloth.

http://www.ehow.com/about_6512290_history-felting-wool.html Saddle Cover
Eastern Altai, Pazyryk Burial Mound 1
Felt, leather, horsehair
5th century BC
L 119 cm, w 60 cm

This cover of thin red felt trimmed along
the edges with strips of leather is
decoratedwith applique designs in
coloured felt. On the sides of the cover are
two identical compositions: a winged
griffin, standing on the ibex he has
overwhelmed, holds in his beak one of the
victim's horns; the ibex's forefeet are bent
under him, while his hind legs, together
with the hindquarters, also twisted around,
turn upwards; the head faces backward.
According to the traditions of ancient Altai art, the animals' bodies are emphasized by applique designs in the form of a dot, triangle and drop.

On either side the saddle cover has three pendants of yellow felt trimmed with red horsehair and lined with leather. The outer side of each pendant shows an applique design in coloured felt of a moufflon between two horned tiger's heads. The cover is highly decorative. http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_En/03/hm3_2_7a.html "Valenki are made of wool felt. They are not water-resistant, and are often worn with galoshes to keep water out and protect the soles from wear and tear. Valenki were once the footwear of choice for many Russians, but in the second half of the 20th century they lost most of their appeal in cities, due to their association with rustic dress". (wiki) "Felt is used extensively in pianos; for example, piano hammers are made of wool felt around a wooden core. The density and springiness of the felt is a major part of what creates a piano's tone. As the felt becomes grooved and "packed" with use and age, the tone suffers" (wiki) "Timpani are typically struck with a special type of drum stick fittingly called a timpani stick or timpani mallet...The head of the stick can be constructed from a number of different materials, though felt wrapped around a wood core is the most common." (wiki) "Resin felt can be manufactured as a flexible blanket, semi rigid board or a moulded rigid panel for thermal and acoustic insulation in automotive industry and applications like carpet underlay, ceiling and machine room acoustic lining. Its non-hazardous nature of the fibre used is excellent for insulation...

...Semi Cured Felt & Semi Cured Jute Felt is widely used in automobile industry. These two material can be hot press into rigid panels which are used as lining of roof, door, boot compartment, rear shelf and engine compartment of automobile, as well as components in other appliances such as fan casing
in air conditioners." http://www.industrialproductmfg.com/Cured_Felt.htm http://evanandgabbystinyhouse.wordpress.com/3-the-concept-of-using-natural-wool-insulation/ "Cherchen Man or Chärchän Man is a mummy discovered near the town of Qiemo (Cherchen) in the Taklamakan Desert, Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, western China. Cherchen Man "died around 1000 BC".[1] The mummy is described as: a 3,000 year old male, "6-foot-6-inch giant with Caucasian features", with hair that is "reddish brown flecked with grey, framing high cheekbones", an "aquiline" "long nose, full lips and a ginger beard", whose face is tattooed with "yellow and purple patterns", it wears "a red twill tunic and tartan leggings"; it is also described as looking "like a Bronze Age European", "a Celt".[2][3][4][5] The Tarim Basin mummies are not limited to men. A female mummy was also found and is called Cherchen Woman." (wiki)

"The Cherchen Man's socks are made of felt,
various strips of felt wrapped around his lower
legs and feet in bright red, orange, and blue.
The blue cap of the baby buried nearby is of
felt, as is one of Cherchen Man's hats, which is
a tall cone reminiscent of a Phrygian cap." http://www.centralasiatraveler.com/cn/xj/cq/zaghunluq.html "Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids." (wiki) Even human
hair can
be felted! "Carding is a mechanical process that disentangles, cleans and intermixes fibers to produce a continuous web or sliver suitable for subsequent processing.[1] This is achieved by passing the fibers between differentially moving surfaces covered with card clothing. It breaks up locks and unorganised clumps of fibre and then aligns the individual fibres to be parallel with each other....Card clothing made from a sturdy flexible backing in which closely spaced wire pins are embedded" (wiki) and cleaning out plant matter Wet Felting http://pinterest.com/curlybirds/felting/ Don't break your needle! Press straight up and down at the same angle.

Do not hit your fingers. It is like a tiny fish hook.
A felting needle is barbed, the barbs pull fibres downward but not upward. Cookie cutters and hard edges can help you to define space and keep lines clean. Dense foam or a felting mat so you don't damage your table/desk or your needle. You can also use wool yarn. Consider adding detail with embroidery or beads. http://artbyliz.me/tag/needle-felting/ 3D Felting Videos Needle Felting Tools and Techniques "Felt Paintings" 3D Felting Soft Sculpture Kay Petal It is best to 3D felt against your mat. If you hold your object as you felt it you are more likely to poke yourself.
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