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10: The Nazi economy, 1933-1939

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by

Simon Hinds

on 29 July 2013

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Transcript of 10: The Nazi economy, 1933-1939

Success?
Unemployment
Autarky
Plans
Timeline
The Nazi economy, 1933-1939
How did the Nazis bring down the level of unemployment in Germany?
Economic Plans
Hermann Goering
1933
Hjalmar Schacht
chief of Germany's national bank
How much credit should be given to the Nazis for bringing down unemployment?
What did the Nazis mean by a 'war economy'?
To what extent did the Four Year Plan achieve its objectives?
Minister of Economics
1934
the New Plan, 1934
Eliminating Unemployment
1933-1936
Hitler chancellor 1933
5 million
'natural' economic recovery
Schacht: public works
Autobhanen
land reclamation, road repair, house building
Rearmament
1933-35
MEFO Bills
Doctor statistics
women
Jews
19-25 Reich Labour Service
Rearmament & Conscription
6 months
the 'Battle for Work'
Battle for work - problems
Rearmament: imported raw materials
exports struggling - tariffs
TRADE DEFICIT
NO IMPORTS Ministry of Economics
the New Plan
fewer food imports, food shortages
Did Germany experience an 'economic miracle' after 1933?
Propaganda: Hitler 'conquered unemployment'
193-34 job-creation schemes
natural recovery
secret rearmament
standards of living:
badly paid
heavily taxed
long hours
the Four-Year Plan
Political Goals: Communists, SDP crushed
Gleichschaltung: German institutions Nazified
'Battle for Work'
WAR!
Economy: Ready for War within 4 years
Size & firepower +
AUTARKY
too far too fast!
Schacht
Resigned as minister for Economics 1937
Hermann Goering
"Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan"
1893-1946
1930s: second in command to Hitler
colourful
corrupt
vain
1935: Commander in Chief of Luftwaffe
AUTARKY
Economically self sufficient
Germany reliant on foreign imports
1) food
2) raw materials
STRATEGY:
German farmers - more food (land grants - reclamation)
Use local raw materials (lower quality/expensive)
Develop synthetic alternatives
Labour retraining - essential skills
Ersatz
coal
rubber
BIG BUSINESS
Cooperate
I.G. Farben - Chemicals Giant
Synthetic Rubber
Synthetic motor Fuel
OR
State Run Facilities
Hermann Goering Works
Ruhr
NO!
1940: 600,000 people
1937
steel making
coal mining
armaments manufacture
How Successful was the Four-Year Plan?
Cannot be successful in all respects
Food
Lebensraum
BUT:
Agriculture vs. War
Agricultural labourers
land: barracks, camps, airfields
draft
$
1.4 million
1933: Reich entailed Farm Law
Steel production
Synthetic Materials
rubber
motor fuel
less than expected
BUDGET DEFICIT
1939: still importing 1/3 raw materials
Partly successful
1933: opening of 'Battle for Work'
1934: Schachts 'New Plan'
1936: Launch 'Four Year Plan'
1937: Schacht resigned
1936
Full transcript