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Comma Usage (9th Grade)

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Kassie K.

on 6 March 2017

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Transcript of Comma Usage (9th Grade)

5.Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come
before the main clause.
a. Common starter words for introductory clauses that should be followed by a comma include after, although, as, because, if, since, when, while.

b. Common introductory words that should be followed by a comma include yes, however, well.



3. Use Commas for Information that Interrupts a Sentence
Use commas for non-essential information in the middle of a sentence.

Ex. Spike, my brother's pet lizard, is shedding.

Here are some clues to help you decide whether the sentence element is essential:

If you leave out the clause, phrase, or word, does the sentence still make sense?
Does the clause, phrase, or word interrupt the flow of words in the original sentence?
If you move the element to a different position in the sentence, does the sentence still make sense?
Commas Are Used For:

1. Items in a list
2.Use a comma before conjunctions combining independent clauses. (F.A.N.B.O.Y.S.)
3.Use commas to set off an expression that interrupts a sentence.
4. Appositives
5.Use a comma after certain introductory elements.
6. Use commas when writing dates between the day of the month and the year.
7.Use commas between cities & states.
4. Commas are used with Appositives
Ex. My friend, the computer programmer, helped me get rid of the virus.
1. Use commas to separate items in a list.
The list can be made up of words, phrases, or clauses written in a series.

The above sentence is actually an example of this usage!

Can somebody with a birthday this month give me another example sentence?
Or, How to Use Them
Commas
An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it.

Ex: The insect, a cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table.
In your own words, explain the difference in meaning between these two sentences.
6. Use a Comma When Referring to Dates
Use a comma to separate the month and year in a date.

Ex. America declared its independence on July 4, 1776.


2. Use a Comma with Coordinating Conjunctions
We use a comma when we use a conjunction to separate two parts of a sentence. This structure lets the reader know that the information in each part is related to each other.

I went to the park, and I saw my friend.
If you leave out the element or put it somewhere else in the sentence, does the essential meaning of the sentence change? If so, the element is essential; if not, it is nonessential.

Nonessential: The average world temperature, however, has continued to rise significantly. (word)

Essential: The woman who interviewed you is my sister. (clause)

Nonessential: The average world temperature, however, has continued to rise significantly. (word)

Essential
Use a comma to separate geographical information.

Ex. McDowell High School is located in Marion, North Carolina.
7. Geographical Information
Punctuate the appositive correctly.
The important point to remember is that a nonessential appositive is always separated from the rest of the sentence with comma(s).

(Examples on the next slide)
When the appositive begins the sentence, it looks like this:

A hot-tempered baseball player, Robbie charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man's skull with a bat.

When the appositive interrupts the sentence, it looks like this:

Robbie, a hot-tempered baseball player, charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man's skull with a bat.

And when the appositive ends the sentence, it looks like this:

Horrified by his actions, the crowd booed Robbie, a hot-tempered baseball player who charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man's skull with a bat.
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