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Transcript of Single Moms
•become more self-sufficient and financially independent
•provide assistance in exploring new
•provide necessary education/ training
•provide career resources and job
•cope with internal and external barriers
and chronic stressors
•provide support system and
Gottfredson's Theory of Circumscription and Compromise (Linda Gottfredson)
Programs and Interventions
About Mercy Housing. (n.d.).
Affordable & Low Income Housing Services
. Retrieved June 12, 2014, from https://www.mercyhousing.org
About Mom Corps. (n.d.).
. Retrieved June 12, 2014 from https://wee.momcorps.com
Forgatch, M.S., & DeGarma, D.S. (1999). Parenting through change: An effective prevention program for single mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67 (5), 711-724.
Single Mothers Outreach
. Retrieved June 12, 2014, from http://singlemothersoutreach.org
Parents Without Partners. (1998). Who We Are. Retrieved June 12, 2014, from http://www.parentswithoutpartners.org
Gottfredson, L. (2004). Using Gottfredson’s Theory of Circumscription and Compromise in Career Guidance and Counseling. Retrieved June 8, 2014, from http://www.udel.edu/educ/gottfredson/reprints/2004theory.pdf
Gray, Audrey. "Constructivist Teaching and Learning." Constructivist Teaching and Learning. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 June 2014.
Hoskins, M. (1995). Constructivist Approaches for Career Counselors. Retrieved June 8, 2014, from http://www.counseling.org/resources/library/eric%20digests/95-062.pdf
Laabs, Jennifer J. "Single moms find new career directions." Personnel Journal Oct. 1994: 48+. Academic OneFile. Web. 3 June 2014.
McLanahan, S. (2011). Fragile families and the reproduction of poverty. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 621, 111-131. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.libproxy.usc.edu/stable/40375835
Parker, P., & Wang, W. (2013). Modern parenthood: Roles of moms and dads converge as they balance work and family. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2013/03/FINAL_modern_parenthood_03-2013.pdf
Peden, A. R., Rayens, M. K., Hall, L. A. and Grant, E. (2005), Testing an Intervention to Reduce Negative Thinking, Depressive Symptoms, and Chronic Stressors in Low-Income Single Mothers. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 37: 268–274. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2005.00046.x
Phythian, K., Keane,C., & Krull, C. (2008). "Family Structure and Parental Behavior: Identifying the Sources of Adolescent Self-Control." Western Criminology Review 9.2 : 73-87. Retrieved June 12, 2014 from http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v09n2/phythian.pdf
Samuels-Dennis, J. (2007), Employment status, depressive symptoms, and the mediating/moderating effects of single mothers' coping repertoire. Public Health Nursing, 24: 491–502. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1446.2007.00661.x
Single Mother Statistics (2014). Retrieved from http://singlemotherguide.com/single-mother-statistics/
Single Parenting: Advice for Single Parents. (2014). Retrieved June 8, 2014, from http://www.findingdulcinea.com/guides/Family-and-Relationships/Parenting/Single-Parenting.xa_1.html
Thorngren, J.M., & Feit, S.S. (2001). The career-o-gram: A postmodern career intervention. The career Development Quarterly, 49 (4), 291-303.
Special Population: Single Moms
Mothers over age 18 who are raising one or more children on their own
May be separated, divorced, widowed, or have never been married
May have difficulties balancing career and family life
May have to deal with stigma attached to single motherhood
Attempting to make a better life for themselves and their children
Various ethnicities and socioeconomic statuses, but many struggle financially
M.O.M.S. (More options for mothers who are single)
•Goal= help women explore career options
•36 hours of individual career counseling and 23 hours of group training
•Counseling portion was conducted on an individual basis and skills training portion topics were chosen by the participants
•Following the program, women reported that the program provided a supportive environment and that the assessments directed them towards potential career interests
Prevention Program for Single Mothers
•Addresses parenting practices to mediate negative outcomes associated with children in single parent families
•Followed a manual called "Parenting Through Change"
•Specifically, focuses on "discipline, positive involvement, monitoring, problem solving, and skill encouragement"
•weekly parent groups
•Experimental group showed improvements in disciplinary behaviors and child adjustment
Help Single Mothers...
: An integrated approach within a Gottfredson perspective that draws from the M.O.M.S. program and focuses on assisting with external and internal barriers that single moms encounter
•Session One- Information
: Group meeting that provides overview of the program and assigns mentors
•Session Two- Support and Identity
: Participants create a career-o-gram with assistance from their mentor. Complete survey regarding skills training to be provided in later sessions.
•Session Three- Parenting:
Focus on parenting practices and external parenting
•Session Four- Career:
Skills training as requested by the group
•Session Five- Career and Empowerment
: Revisit career-o-gram and
career identity with mentors. Introduce relaxation techniques and affirmation
•Session Six- Career and Parenting
: Skills Training/ Parenting Practices
•Session Seven- Career and Identity
: Begin to develop an action plan
•Session Eight: Review/ wrap up
(Forgatch & DeGarmo, 1999)
(Peden & Rayens, 2005; Thorngren, 2001)
Issues that Single Mothers Face
Why Career Counseling?
Taking care of the child as a single mother doubles what they must accomplish to care for themselves and their family.
Balancing their personal, financial, family and work life can be challenging.
("Single Parents: Advice for Single Parents," 2014)
Single mothers are having trouble deciding on whether to continue their education or stay at home with her child.
Having trouble deciding on whether to go to work or get an education.
Are confused on whether they should pursue a career they like or a career that will be better for herself and her family.
(Women Employed, 2011)
The theory of circumscription and compromise focuses on how young people gradually come to recognize and deal with, or fail to deal with, the array of vocational choices their society provides.
Views vocational choice as a matching process, that is, as individuals seeking occupations that satisfy their interests and goals and for which they possesses the skills, abilities, and temperament.
Vocational choice begins as a process of circumscription, of eliminating occupational alternatives that conflict with one’s self-concept.
The circumscription and compromise theory suggests that four developmental processes are especially important in the matching process: age-related growth in cognitive ability (cognitive growth), increasingly self-directed development of self (self-creation), progressive elimination of least favored vocational alternatives (circumscription), and recognition of and accommodation to external constraints on vocational choice (compromise).
Constructivist Theory ( Peavy Savickas)
Based on holistic approach, constructivism emphasizes the self-organizing principles underlying human experience.
One of the basic tenets of a constructivist approach is that people are meaning-makers.
People interpret the events of their lives in the pursuit of meaning.
Constructivist theory allows an individual to reflect on their current/past knowledge and to create what they believe is their own reality.
It is very client-focused and will encourage the client to expand their understanding of their own world
Employers may be reluctant to hire single mothers out of fear that they will miss work to care for children
Stress related to raising children alone
May have been out of the workforce caring for children and may not be confident in their job skills
Guilt about spending less time with children while working
Difficulty finding adequate and inexpensive child care
Possible lack of financial and emotional support from the fathers of their children
- 31% of all mothers in the United States are unmarried (Parker & Wang, 2013).
- Only a third of single moms receive child support. The average amount is about $400 per month ("Single Mother Statistics," 2014).
- 40.9% of families with single mothers live in poverty. This is nearly five times more than the poverty rate for married-couple families (8.9%) ("Single Mother Statistics," 2014).
- Single mothers are more likely to suffer from depression and alcoholism (McLanahan, 2011).
- A quarter of all single mothers are unemployed. Only 24% of unemployed single moms receive unemployment benefits ("Single Mother Statistics," 2014).
- Working single moms earn much less than their male counterparts, about 78 cents to $1 for the same job. The wage gap is even greater for women of color:
- African-American women - 62 cents
- Latina women - 53 cents
("Single Mother Statistics," 2014)
- For single mothers, employment provides multiple psychological benefits, including financial independence, improved self-esteem, and increased access to social networks (Samuels-Dennis, 2007).
The idea that various factors limit career choices at different ages.
Ex. making the choice of becoming pregnant, being in a relationship, being sexually active, etc. might have let them to their current situation.
(Keane, C., Knull, C., & Phytian, K., 2008)
How it applies to single mothers
Constructivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction rather than passively receiving information.
Help mothers be actively involved in their career choice.
Help them find meaning in their interests
Help them become knowledgeable about their interests, options, etc.
("Constructivist Teaching and Learning")
Single mothers often spend over half of their income on housing expenses and a third on child care, leaving them with less money for educational expenses.
Without generous financial aid, single mother students – a total of 1.5 million – have little or no means to contribute financially to their educational expenses.
("Single Mother Statistics," 2014)
"While a lack of paid leave makes it difficult for single parents to leave work in order to care for their children, a lack of affordable childcare and early childhood education options are a significant barrier to finding employment and keeping it."
("Women Employed," 2011)