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Biology EOC Review

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by

Jessica Marroquin

on 4 May 2016

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Transcript of Biology EOC Review

1.
CARBOHYDRATES:
CHO
Saccharides
Glucose, Cellulose, Starch, Chitin
2.
LIPIDS:
CHO
Fatty Acids & Glycerol
Wax, Oil, Fats
3.
Proteins:
CHON
Amino Acids

Macromolecules
Eukaryote
"Eu rhymes with
DO"
Protists, Fungi, Plants, & Animals
have
a nucleus
membrane bound organelles

-
mitochondria
:
powerhouse
-
nucleus:
information center
-
ribosomes:
protein factory
-
cell membrane:
bouncer(gate guard)
-
cell wall:
protection and support

ONLY
in plants and fungi
-
ER:

Highway

Archea and Bacteria
NO
nucleus
NO
membrane bound organelles
have genetic material

Cell spends most of it's time in
INTERPHASE
G1: growth
S: synthesis - making new DNA
G2: making copies of organelles
HAPPENS BEFORE MITOSIS
Cellular Division
Biology EOC Review
CELLS
4.
NUCLEIC ACIDS:
CHONP
Nucleotides
DNA &RNA
"
Mitosis
happens in my
toes"
(somatic cells)
PMAT
Prokaryote
"Pro rhymes with NO
"
Cell Organelles
-Contain a cell or cells
-Exchange gases
-Respond to stimuli
-Metabolize
-Grow
-Reproduce
All living things...
VIRUSES ARE NOT LIVING!
CANCER is a disruption in the cell cycle.
GENES
DNA- double helix, nitrogenous bases: A-T, C-G, deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group


"If I could chose between DNA and RNA, I'd chose RNA because it has U in it"
Replication--> Transcription --> Translation

DNA --->RNA---> Proteins
Central Dogma of Genetics
The sequence of the nitrogenous bases determines the proteins created
Mutations: Mostly bad, but when beneficial can contribute to evolution.
Point, Frameshift, deletion, insertion
46 chromosomes in each cell, half from mothers gamete, half from fathers gamete
When doing a punnet square:
CODOMINANT: both alleles will be present in phenotype
INCOMPLETE: a mix of both alleles
Heredity
STRATEGIES
Eliminate at least two incorrect answers.
Justify why you are eliminating.
Take your time.
Take a deep breathe and
Believe in yourself
:)
You know the material!

-Read the entire question.
-Highlight important words in the passage -Use your scratch sheet to write what you know
Natural Selection
"adapt"
gene flow: bringing new genes in
gene pool: genes possible in the population
genetic drift: genes being reduced in population during a change in the environment
Photosynthesis:
Chloroplast

Carbon Dioxide + Water + Radiant Energy --> Glucose + Oxygen
Cellular Respiration:
Mitochondria
Glucose + Oxygen--> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Cellular Energy (ATP)
Mutualism :) :)
Commensalism :) :I
Parasitism :) :(
Carrying capacity:
maximum population that can survive with given resources
Enzymes
bind to substrates to lower activation energy in chemical reactions
species:
organisms that can breed with one another to create fertile offspring
Population:
organisms of the same species in a particular group
Decomposers
return carbon and nitrogen back to the atmosphere
Variation:
difference that exists among organisms, environmental factors may favor one over the other.
ECOLOGY

"
Meiosis
happens in my
O's
" (gametes)
The Scientific Method
Steps:
1. Problem
2. Hypothesis
3. Experiment/Observation
4. Results
5. Conclusion
Control Group
: Group that is kept in normal conditions for comparison
Independent Variable
(MIX): Manipulated factor
Dependent Variable
(DRY): responding factor
Constant
: Factors that remain the same for both control group and experimental group
Ecosystem
: organisms of various species coexisting in a certain region with abiotic factors
Biotic Factors
: living things
Abiotic:
non living.
The sun, water, weather, rocks, volcanoes, etc.
Dihybrid Cross Punnet Squares:
You will have 16 squares!
AaBb
x
AaBb
AB, Ab, aB, ab
AB,Ab,aB,ab

TIPS
Cladograms:
the oldest is at the bottom to the youngest at the top.
D
id
K
ing
P
hilip
C
ome
O
ver
f
or
G
ood
S
oup?
Genus and Species
are used for binomial nomenclature
Homo
= genus
Sapians
= species
WE BELIEVE IN YOU!
Use FOIL method to get different allele combinations:
F
irst
O
uter
I
nner
L
ast
Full transcript