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What Every Therapeutic Recreation Specialist Should Know About... Visual Impairment!

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Christopher Schell

on 14 April 2011

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Transcript of What Every Therapeutic Recreation Specialist Should Know About... Visual Impairment!

What Every Therapeutic
Recreation Specialist
Should Know About... Types of visual impairment Tips and Considerations Adaptations and Modifications Example Resources/References Five Categories Total Blindness Low Vision Color blindness Myopia (Nearsightedness) Hyperopia (farsightedness) see objects clearly when they are close but have difficulty seeing far objects distortion and blurring of vision
due to misshape of the eyeball etiology and Prevalence common characteristics and Issues Visual Impairment! Legal Blindness Astigmatism a severe reduction in vision that can not be corrected
with standard glasses or contact lenses and reduces
a persons ability to function at certain or all tasks inability to tell light from dark, or the total inability to see can see objects better when they are far away,
closer objects are blurry the reduced ability to perceive certain colors, usually red and green. it is a hereditary defect and affects very few tasks. Visual acuity of 20/200 or worse in the better eye with corrective lenses (20/200 means that a person at 20 feet from an eye chart can see what a person with normal vision could see at 200 feet)
-or-
Visual field restriction to 20 degrees diameter or less (tunnel vision) in the better eye. Folks with advanced glaucoma, retinal degenerations, and neurologic disorders usually qualify under this criterion.
If a person is totally blind (no light perception) in one eye yet can see better than 20/200 in the other eye there is no legal blindness. the world health organization defines impaired vision in 5 categories:
low vision 1 - best corrected visual acuity of 20/70
low vision 2 - starts at 20/200
blindness 3 - below 20/400
blindness 4 - worse than 5/300
blindness 5 - no light perception at all Measuring Visual Impairment Use a Snellen Chart
Clarity
Diopter
Visual Field
The Leading Causes: Macular degeneration


Glaucoma


Cataracts


Diabetes mellitus Other Causes: Infections (herpes simplex keratitis, trachoma, leprosy, river blindness)
Injuries, brain tumors, diseases
Nutrition According to the WHO, there are over 40 million people worldwide whose vision is category 3 or worse, 80% whom live in developing countries. Half of the blind population in the US is over 65 years of age. More than 3 million people in the US do not have normal vision, even with the help of eyeglasses or corrective lenses. The rate at which visual impairments occur in individuals under the age of 18 is 12.2 per 1,000. Severe impairments (legally or totally blind) occur at a rate of .06 per 1,000. What is Visual Impairment? If your vision with eyelasses or corrective lenses is 20/60 or worse, you are considered visually impaired. Limitation of side vision, abnormal color vision, or presence of double vision in one eye may also determine visual impairment. Behavioral Communicative Physical:
behavior, appearance, complaints •Advanced planning
•Exposure to equipment before use
•Assessment
•Indoor areas will lit
•Use light colored equipment
•Allow exploration of entire recreation area
•Keep areas uncluttered
•Modify activities and equipment where necessary
•Use descriptive verbal instruction
•Use directional words and landmarks
•Use movement as a mode of learning
•Visual impairment affects balance. Modify the environment (proper lighting and color contrast, larger or smaller objects, using textures)
Slow the action
Break down skills into component parts
Familiarize participant with any hazards, obstacles, unfamiliar surroundings
Keep verbal contact Equipment BrailleNote
CCTV
Clear Note
Ultra Cane
Magnifiers
Guide dogs Assessment:
Alexis Winston
16 years old and loves to ice skate
One night while practicing alexis has a terrible accident
She becomes blind because of it
Internal Strengths: determination, love for the sport, familiarity with ice skating, perserverance, courage, open mindedness, self-control, patience and hope
External Strengths: family support, strong friend group, very close relationship with coachs and community Implementation:
Find appropriate locations where Lexie and I will be able to practice without much interuption
Figure out a schedule for times when Lexie can practice with you and with others
Create a routine for what will be done at each practice; adjust as needed
Evaluation:
Have check ins with Lexie to see how shes feeling about the practices and routines; again adjust as needed Planning:
Goal: Get Lexie back into ice skating
Behavioral Objective:
Conquer a move that she continuously fails at and gets down about
Plan:
practice at a particular ice rink with Lexie so that she can get familiar with its size and surroundings
go back to basics and be a guide for Lexie and help her with establishing a comfort and confidence in her environment and with her abilities
after success with the basics, get her back to her level of ice skating before she was blind by practicing moves shes been able to do in the past
get her to feel comfortable with doing those with her new circumstance American Academy of Opthalmology, Initials. (2004). Visual impairment, visual disability and legal
blindness. Retrieved from https://secure3.aao.org/pdf/057135.pdf
Letcher, K. . (2011). Adapted physical education for the blind and visually impaired. Retrieved
fromhttp://s118134197.onlinehome.us/page.php?ITEM=39
National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Initials. (2001, January). Definition of visually impaired . Retrieved from
http://www.parentpals.com/gossamer/pages/Detailed/692.html
Visual impairment. (2008). Retrieved from http://medical-
dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Visual+Impairment
Visual impairment (including blidness). (2011). Retrieved from
http://arksped.k12.ar.us/rules_regs_08/3.%20SPED%20ELIGIBILITY%20CRITERIA%20AND%20PR
OGRAM%20GUIDELINES%20FOR%20CHILDREN/PART%20I%20ELIGIBILITY%20CRITERIA%20AGES
%205-21/L.%20VISUAL%20IMPAIRMENT%20INCLUDING%20BLINDNESS.pdf
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