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road to the civil war
Transcript of road to the civil war
1840's and 1850's
Road To The Civil War!
Southerners did not like the Proviso
Personal Liberty Laws
"Uncle Tom's Cabin"
an escape route for slaves to escape their plantations to pursue freedom.
the South lost an estimated 100,000 slaves betwenn 1810 and 1850
the slaves went through many trials and tribulatiosn to gain this freedom
slave: escapes in 1849 but returned multiple times to save others
was sometimes refereed to as "Moses"
good friend of Harriet Tubman
spent 40 years devoted to the underground railroad
been arrested for harboring fugitive slaves but that didn't stop him
FREE black man
from there they would move to safe houses which were signified by a lantern on a hitch post outside the house.
even at these "safe houses" there was still very high risks for both the slaves fugitives and the whites who let them in.
from there the fugitives would move from safe house to safe house until the could escape. some went to other countries such as islands off the coast and Canada.
the south lost about 100,000 slaves over a span of 40 which diminished their workforce and made them angry because the northerners weer not enforcing laws that made the government send the slaves back once they had escaped. the north was slowly beginning to get slavery out of America.
"Uncle Tom's Cabin" was an anti-slavry novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was the 2nd best selling book of the 19th century following the bible. "Uncle Tom's Cabin" was thought to be a great paving stone for the onset of the Civil War.
they hunted the fugitive slaves like they were animals, letting their dogs attack them viciously without regard. the slave owners often carried guns and other weapons as well as having their dogs.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
June 14, 1811 July 1, 1896
America abolitionist and author
born in CN to out spoken, religious parents.
received a traditionally "male" education
one of the founders of the Hartford Art School which later became part of the University of Hartford.
A kind slave owning couple decide to sell a couple of their slaves, Uncle Tom and Harry, to a local slave trader to raise money for themselves. when Harry's mother Eliza hears of this she is appaled becasue she was promised her son would not be sold, so after warning Tom and his wife she and her son flee for Canada.
when word of their escape reaches the slave trader, Mr.Haley, they were meant to be sold to he is furious and sends slave hunters out to bring them back. Eliza and Harry escape barely by crossing the half frozen Ohio river into northern territory.
meanwhile, miles and miles away, Tom is sold to mr. Haley. On a boat on their way to Mr. Haley's home a young girl names Eva falls into the river and Tom saves her. Eva's father Mr. St. Clare is so greatful that he buys Tom and treats him very well fora few years. Eva then falls very ill and dies and he father also dies soon after, before getting a chance to set tom free like he had planed. Tom now left with evil Mrs. St. Clare who sellshim to a vicious slave owner. there he meets other slaves and hears theirstories and how they have been seperated from loved ones and other struggles.
the 2 stories cross when Tom and another slave women he meet, Cassy, and her daughter attempt to escape and finally reach freedom with Eliza and Harry. at this point it is realized that Eliza is Cassy's long lost daughter that had been taken from her when they were sold into slavery so long ago.
this story portrayed the
south and the slave owners as mean and vicious, willing to do whatever it takes to keep their 'property' while the northernes are helpful to the slaves, betraying their fellow americans to help someone in need.
all of Stowe writing was provoking to these feeling from
southerners, she wanted to make
them angry and prove that her
points were correct
a series of laws passed by the north to counteract the fugitive slave act of 1050 and 1793.
these laws stated that fugitive slaves had the right to a trial by jury and some states even forbade the capture and return of fugitive slaves.
A law that made it so the territory west of the Missouri was split into 2 territories and each territory had popular sovereignty
Popular Sovereignty=each territory having the power to vote and decided whether slavery will be legal or illegal in their territory
Passed on May 30, 1854
States that passed
these laws caused many southern states to threaten secession, saying the Personal Liberty Laws were unfair and that the slaves were their rightful property. these laws definitely cause a great deal of tension and were a significant spark that lead up to the Civil War
Nullification of slavery, as Jefferson Said, is the "rightful remedy"
“An increasing hostility on the part of the non-slaveholding States to the institution of slavery, has led to a disregard of their obligations, and the laws of the General Government have ceased to effect the objects of the Constitution. The States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa, have enacted laws which either nullify the Acts of Congress or render useless any attempt to execute them.”
quote from SC threat of secession
meaning there would be more slave states, so the free states would be the minority in congress
Mad - knew that the territory has been previously decided to be free territory, but was being taken and could become a slave territory
Do not really mind - Kansas-Nebraska act takes away territory that was suppose to be free territory, and gives it a chance to be a slave territory
In 1846, David Wilmot introduced an amendment to Congress that states:
"the future land purchased from Mexico would not have slavery or involuntary servitude"
The Northerners like the bill
The Southerners represent most of the Senate, denying the bill to ever become a law.
The Compromise of 1850
a series of 5 bills which temporarily diffused a four year confrontation between the free Northern and Southern slavery states regarding the status of the newly acquired territories during the Mexican-American war.
Henry Clay of Kentucky wrote the compromise at 70 years old.
Young Democrat, Stephen Douglas, helped Clay broker the compromise.
Texas must give up all claimed territories, to New Mexico and got 10 million dollars in compensation
New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah:
not defined as slave or free territories
the citizens vote on this when applying to become a state.
The Compromise continued...
The District of Columbia abolished slave trade, but still allowed slavery.
California would enter the union as a free state.
This changed the balance of the free versus slave states in favor of the free states.
The Fugitive Slave Act
The most controversial bill in The Compromise of 1850.
Required citizens to assist in capturing and returning fugitive slaves
Denied slaves the right to a fair trial
Created more federal officials to help enforce the law
Additional aspects of the Fugitive Slave Act...
20,000 blacks fled to Canada
the act enraged
Enraged abolitionists and increased their desire to end slavery
The Northerners: where mostly represented in the House and the bill was passed in the House
Dred Scott Case
Harpers Ferry Raid