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Transcript of Aperthied
(the Pass Laws) "The Pass Laws", Handbook on Race Relations in South Africa
Oxford University Press, 1949
Africans were often compelled to go against the pass laws to find work for they're families. Which ment harrassment, fines, and arrests under the pass laws was a constant fear for the urban African families. Protests against these laws lead to the anti-apartheid struggle. all in all during the Defiance Campain, the massive women's protest, to burning of the passes at police stations, 69 protesters were massacred.
(the pass laws) "The Pass Laws", Handbook on Race Relations in South Africa
Oxford University Press, 1949 http://www.south-africa-tours-and-travel.com/images/apartheid-signboard-on-durban-beach-apartheid.jpg African men and women that did not qualify to work in white urban areas had to carry a "pass" that was valid for 72 hours. If a black African was caught with an expired pass, they would be arrested and had to pay a fine to be released. In most cases, the individual did not have enought money to pay the fine and would have to be jailed for months. This destroyed family structure and criminalized a large part of the black popluation.
(www.rebirth.co) http://www.creativeroots.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/overcoming_apartheid-a0a7h5-a_3272.jpg http://www.rebirth.co.za/apartheid_pass_law.htm http://www.creativeroots.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Sharpeville-2-pass-book.JPG The pass law was abloished in 1952, only to be replaced by a 96-page document, named a reference book. The refenece book had a finger print of the owner, and had to be carried around at all times. Failure to show your book to a policeman on demand was a punishable offence.
(www.rebirth.co) http://www.rebirth.co.za/apartheid_pass_law.htm At the height of the law, few Africans could claim that they have not appeared before the Bantu Commissioners court to answer to charges of being in an urban area with out a reference book. In 1956, the apartheid government romived the right of Aficans to appeal to the courts against the removal from an urban area. To Maintain 'peace and order', police and local authorities were empowered to raid, without search warrent, any dwelling in search for an illegal resident.
(www.rebirth.co) http://www.rebirth.co.za/apartheid_pass_law.htm http://www.earthlyissues.com/images/overcoming_apartheid-a0a8a0-a_3272.jpg http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/governence-projects/passive-resistance/1960.htm