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Transcript of Geography Ecozones
The Boreal Shield is very rocky and contains many lakes. The shield is made up of Igneous and Metamorphic rock. The rocks were once tall mountains but, due to erosion, are now considered rolling hills. They contain many minerals including nickel. Sudbury is home to many of the lakes and the nickel deposits.
The soil is very wet, thin and very acidic. The large amount of coniferous trees cause the acidity. Their needles contain high acid levels which cycle into the soil. It also contains very little humus. The growing season is 60-100 days. Most crops need 100 days. The soil and climate are not ideal for farming.
The Boreal Sheild has a very diverse range of vegetation. This is due to the large amount of ecosystems. Wetlands, which give nutrients to the plants, cover over 1/5 of the ecozone. Some of the plants include;
Trees: White Spruce, Black Spruce, Balsam Fir, Tamarack, White Pine, Red Pine, Jack Pine, Red Maple, White Birch, ect.
Small Shrubs, Mosses, Blueberries, Water lilles, Cattails, ect.
Mammals: Caribou, Deer, Moose, Black Bear, Wolf, Beaver, Red Squirrel, Red Fox etc.
Birds: Many types of owls, Pileated Woodpecker, Morning Dove, Blue Jay, common Loon, Canada Goose, ect.
Fish: Sturgeon, Lake Trout, Largemouth bass, Whitefish, Atlantic Salmon, Sea Lamprey, ect.
Insects: Black Flys, Boreal Spittlebug, Monarch Butterfly, Mosquitoes, ect.
Reptiles/Amphibians: Many frogs, toads and snakes, Painted Turtle and the common Snapping Turtle.
The Boreal Shield has an average temperature of 13ºC in the summer and -1ºC in the winter. In the western edge of the ecozone, the average winter temperature is -20ºC. The precipitation varies from 400mm in the west and 1600mm in the maritime areas due to the ocean. This ecozone has both Continental and Maritime climates.
Government Of Canada. (n.d.). Climate: Monthly Data Report For 2012. Retrieved October 26,2013. From http://climate.weather.gc.ca/climateData/monthlydata_e.html?timeframe=3&Prov=ONT%20&StationID=4132&mlyRange=1954-01-01|2012-12-01&Year=2012&Month=10&Day=25
Greater Sudbury. (n.d.). Living In Greater sudbury: Biodiversity. Retrieved October 26,2013. From http://www.greatersudbury.ca/living/environmental-initiatives/biodiversity/
Environment Canada. (n.d.). Boreal Shield. Retrieved October 27,2013. From http://ecozones.ca/english/zone/BorealShield/index.html
Torsten,B. (n.d.). Boreal Shield. Retrieved October 26,2013. From http://canadianbiodiversity.mcgill.ca/english/ecozones/borealshield/borealshield.htm
Ishraq. (n.d.). Canadian Ecozones: The Boreal Shield Ecozone. Retrieved October 26,2013. From http://borealshieldandplains.weebly.com/
Mammals: many kinds of whales and seals, Black-tailed Deer, Caribou, Mountain Goat, Black Bear, Grizzly Bear, Beaver, Snowshoe Hare, River Otter, Red Fox, ect.
Birds: many kinds of owls, Bald Eagle, Red-tailed Hawk, Shorebirds, Tufted Puffin, Blue Heron, Wood Duck, Canada Goose, songbirds, downy woodpecker, ect.
Amphibians: many toads, frogs, salamanders, Leatherback turtle, Green turtle and Northern Aligator Lizard.
Fish: Pacific Salmon, Pacific Herring, Pacific Halibut, White Sturgeon, Pink Salmon, Chum Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, ect.
Insects: Red Turpentine Beetle, European earwig, Monarch Butterfly, Mourning Cloak, Migratory Grasshopper, ect.
The Warm weather year round provides great growing conditions for trees and other plants. This is why trees are so tall and big.
Trees: Western Red Cedar, Yellow Cedar, Western Hemlock, Mountain Hemlock, Coast Douglas Fir, Grand Fir, Coast Redwood, Lodgepole Pine, Western White Pine , Shore Pine, and Pacific Dogwood.
Small Plants: Oregon Grape, Skunk Cabbage, Salmonberry, Red Huckleberry, Old Man’s Beard, Red Elderberry, Western Bleeding Heart, ect.
The Pacific Maritime has an average temperature of 13ºC in the summer and -1.5ºC in the winter. The precipitation can exceed 4000mm in the north due to the ocean. Some areas get less amounts of precipitation for example the gulf island which gets 600mm. Nanaimo has a Winter max and a Maritime Climate.
The soil is very wet, thin and very acidic. Lots of precipitation leaches minerals deep into the soil causing it to be very rich . It also contains a lot of humus. The soil on the mountains is more dry and low in nutrients due to elevation. The growing season is 200-260 days.
The Pacific Maritime is very mountainous. The North American and Pacific plates are the reason for the mountains. They are about 200-250 million years old. These rocks are igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. The plates folding under one another cause volcanoes as well. Due to the mountains, the transportation is very hard.
Torsten,B. (n.d.). Pacific Maritime. Retrieved October 27,2013. From
Ecozone Experts. (n.d.). Pacific maritime. Retrieved October 27,2013. From
Environment Canada. (n.d.). Pacific maritime. Retrieved October 27,2013. From http://ecozones.ca/english/zone/PacificMaritime/index.html
Mountains and plateaus are dominant features, separated by lowlands and highlands. Debris and deposits from glaciers cover plateaus and lower slopes of mountains. Lakes and rivers include Snag Lake, Kluane Lake and the Yukon River. The 3 major drainage systems are the Yukon, Liard and the Alsek Rivers.
The Boreal Cordillera has an interior subalpine climate. There is long, cold winters (-20 C) and short cool summers(12 C). It's very dry and precipitation is 300-500mm annually. The growing season is 125-150 days.
Mean annual temperature -0.3 C to -0.7 C. Whitehorse has a Continental climate.
There is little soil on slopes of mountains. The rest of mountain is rock. In lower ranges, the subsoil is very rich in minerals because water pushes debris of plants into it. Top soil is not very rich so only plants with deep roots can survive.
The vegetation isn't very diverse. All the plants and trees need deep roots to get their resources.
Trees: White Spruce, Black Spruce, Balsam Fir, Tamarack, White Pine, Red Pine, Red maple, Eastern Red Cedar, Pin Cherry, White Birch, ect.
Other Plants: Ericaceous shrubs, Sphagnum Moss, Labrador Tea, Blueberry, Bog Rosemary, Sedges, High Bush Cranberry, Bunchberry,ect.
The climate is too cold for certain species to survive, for example; Amphibians and Reptiles do not live here.
Mammals: Caribou, Moose, Mountain Goat, Black Bear, Grizzly Bear, Lynx, Wolf, Woodchuck, Beaver, Lemmings, Snowshoe Hare, River Otter, Striped Skunk, Coyote, Red Fox, ect.
Birds: Many Songbirds, Owls, Hawks, Grouse, Downy Woodpecker, Purple Finch, ect.
Fish: Northern Pike, Salmon, sturgeon, ect.
Billions of insects
The Mixedwood Plains have gentle rolling hills and plains, hence the name. There are many lakes and rivers including the St. Lawrence River. The rock is mainly mesozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary. The Niagara Escarpment is prominent in the ecozone. 4 of the Great Lakes are located in this ecozone.
The soil is very wet, thick and fertile. Lots of leaching the minerals deep into the soil causes it to be very rich and nutrient filled. There is a lot of humus. The soil is the most fertile and rich in the country. The growing season is 180-260 days. Sadly, most of this soil is trapped under the buildings that make up Toronto.
Mammals: Black Bear, Wolf, Bobcat, Moose, White-tailed Deer, Grey, Black, Red and flying Squirrel, Eastern Cottontail, Opossum, ect.
Birds: Hawks, Owls, Turkey Vulture, Songbirds, Wood Peckers, Canada Goose, Ducks, ect.
Reptiles: Frogs, Toads, Salamanders, Newts, Turtles, Many Snakes and the Five-Lined Skink Lizard
Fish: Most fish have been introduced by boats coming in and out, for example; Sea Lamprey, Sockeye, Rainbow Smelt, Common Carp, ect.
The Mixedwood plains has an average of -5ºC in the winter and 17ºC in the summer. The precipitation can vary from 720mm to 1000mm. the growing season is 180-260 days. Toronto has a summer max and a Continental climate.
Ancient forests have disappeared at a fast rate due to urbanization and farming.
Trees: White Pine, Red Pine, Eastern Hemlock, Eastern Red and White Cedar, Sugar Maple, Red Maple, Red Oak, Yellow Birch, Paper Birch, Balsam Poplar, Blue Ash, Black Ash, Red Mulberry, Sassafras, ect.
Other plants: Downy Serviceberry.
Torsten,B. (n.d.). Mixed Wood Plains . Retrieved October 28,2013. From
Envrionment canada. (n.d.). Mixed Wood Plains. Retrieved October 28,2013. From
Ecozone Experts. (n.d.). Mixed Wood Plains. Retrieved October 28,2013. From
https://ecozoneexperts.wikispaces.com/Mixed+Wood+Plains#Vegetation and soil
The Northern Arctic has flat or slightly rolling hills. The rock is Paleozoic and Mesozoic limestone. There is glaciers in the south and rocky hills in the east. The rock hills are made of Precambrian granite. This shows the rock is all very old. The arctic ocean surrounds the islands including Baffin Island.
The climate here is the coldest and driest in the country. The high annual summer temperature is -1.5°C and the low annual winter temperature is below -30°C. The annual temperature is -14°C. The precipitation is between 100mm and 200mm. This low can be classified as a desert. The northern Arctic is permanently frozen however they can unfreeze in the summer but ice still remains throughout the ocean.
The soil is cryosolic which means permanently frozen and a temperature of 0°C. There is a deep layer of permafrost so very little plants can survive. The soil is very dry and has very little humus if any.
There are no trees but little shrubs can be found. The climate is not suitable for many plants. The ones that do exist have deep roots that go deep into the permafrost.
Arctic poppy, Arctic Willow, Cotton Grass, Moss, dwarf Birch, Northern Labrador Tea, Chickweed, ect.
Mammals: Polar Bear, Arctic Wolf, Muskox, Barren-Land Caribou, Arctic Fox, Wolverine, Hare, Lemmings, Walrus, Seals, Whales,
Birds: Snowy Owl, Snow Goose, Arctic Loon, Ruddy Turnstone, Red Knot, ect.
Amphibian can not survive
Torsten,B. (n.d.). Northern Arctic. Retrieved October 30,2013. From
Environment Canada. (n.d.). Northern Arctic. Retrieved October 30,2013. From
University Of Guelph. (n.d.). Northern Arctic Ecozone. Retrieved October 30,2013. From http://www.arctic.uoguelph.ca/cpe/environments/land/northarctic/north_arctic.htm
Torsten,B. (n.d.). Boreal Cordillera. Retrieved October 28,2013. From
Envrionment canada. (n.d.). Boreal Cordillera. Retrieved October 28,2013. From http://ecozones.ca/english/zone/BorealCordillera/index.html
Ecozone Experts. (n.d.). Boreal Cordillera. Retrieved October 28,2013. From
Parks Canada. (n.d.). Kluane National Park and Reserve of Canada. Retrieved October 28,2013. From http://www.pc.gc.ca/eng/pn-np/yt/kluane/index.aspx
The Canadian Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Natural Regions. Retrieved October 28,2013. From
This city celebrates many cultures. These include:
The Garlic Festival
Ukrainian Yarmarok Festival
The Whitefish Lake Drumming Celebration
The Northern Lights Festival. The Northern Lights festival is a celebration of many cultures.
The holidays include;
Christmas and Boxing Day.
Culture / Celebrations
In Nanaimo, there are not many cultural celebrations because it is such a small city compared to Vancouver and Victoria. People who live in Nanaimo just go to those bigger cites for cultural celebrations; however there is the Maple Sugar Festival which celebrates francophones.
The festivals include;
Vancouver Island International children's Festival
Empire Days Celebration
Dragon Boat Festival
GIBW Bathtub Race
Nanaimo Marine festival
Vancouver island Exhibition
Festival of Trees
The Festivals include;
Wahnpitae First Nations Pow-Wow
Festival of Lights
LOL Sudbury Comedy Festival
Largest sidewalk/yard sale
Sudbury Gardening festival
Downtown Rotary Blues for Food
Anderson Fall Fair
Santa Claus Parade