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# What makes ice melt fastest

What makes ice melts fastest?
by

## Clyde Spight

on 29 May 2015

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#### Transcript of What makes ice melt fastest

Slide #2
Testable Question
How does adding different substances (sand, salt, and sugar) to ice affect how fast it melts?
What makes ice melts fastest?
Slide #3
Background Research
The effect salt has on ice-
Ice forms when the­ temperature of water reaches 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius). When you add salt, that temperature drops: A 10-percent salt solution freezes at 20 F (-6 C), and a 20-percent solution freezes at 2 F (-16 C). the ice immediately around the grain of salt melts, and the melting spreads out from that point. If the temperature of the roadway is lower than 15 F or so, then the salt really won't have any effect -- the solid salt cannot get into the structure of the solid water to start the dissolving process. In that case, spreading sand over the top of the ice to provide traction is a better option.
Slide #4
Hypothesis
What I am expecting to happen is the sand will make the ice melt the fastest because of the salt inside of the sand and because sand absorbs water and maybe that will make the ice melts faster.
Slide #5
Iv, Dv, and Constants
Independent variable- How fast the ice melts.
Dependent variable- The ice.
Constants- The bowl with just ice with no sand, salt, or sugar.
Slide #6
Experimental & Control group
Experimental group- The bowls with sand, salt, and sugar in them.
Control group- The bowl without any sand, salt, or sugar.
Slide #1
Clyde Spight
Period:1

Slide #7
Materials
Identical bowls or saucers (4)
Ice cubes (12). They should all be the same size and shape.
Salt (¾ tsp.)
Sugar (¾ tsp.)
Sand (¾ tsp.)
¼ teaspoon measuring spoon
Timer or clock
Refrigerator. You will want an empty shelf that can hold all four bowls, unstacked, at the same time.
50 mL graduated cylinder, or smaller size. Such a graduated cylinder is available from Amazon.com.
Large cup with a spout, such as some measuring cups. Alternatively you could use a funnel that fits in the graduated cylinder.
Optional: Masking tape and a permanent marker for labeling the bowls
Lab notebook
Slide #8
Procedures
Step 1- Get the salt, sugar, sand, and measuring teaspoon ready to use nearby.
Once you have set up the ice cubes in their bowls, you will want to quickly add the substances to the ice cubes so that they do not melt before adding the substances.
Step 2-Into each of the four bowls, quickly place three ice cubes. Arrange the ice cubes so that only the corners are touching, forming a triangular shape, as shown in Figure 2, below.
Tip: If you are using ice cubes from a tray, it helps to let the tray sit at room temperature a little (for about five minutes) so that the ice cubes more easily come out of the tray and do not break into pieces.
Step 3-Carefully sprinkle ½ teaspoon (tsp.) of salt over the ice cubes in one bowl, as shown in Figure 3, below. Then sprinkle ½ tsp. of sugar over the ice cubes in another bowl, and ½ tsp. of sand over the ice cubes in the third bowl. Do not sprinkle anything over the ice cubes in the fourth bowl — it will be your control.
Step 4-Move each bowl to an empty shelf in the refrigerator. If any of the ice cubes no longer form a triangular shape in their bowl, gently nudge the ice cubes to make a triangle again.
You are doing this experiment in the refrigerator because it is easier to see the effects of colligative properties at colder temperatures. To think about why this is, imagine melting an ice cube on a hot, paved road compared to melting it in the refrigerator. The hot temperature of the road will make all of the ice cubes melt very quickly, which makes it harder to see the relatively minor effects of colligative properties on how fast the ice cubes melt.
Step 5-Note the starting time in your lab notebook. Tell other people who may use the refrigerator that you are doing a science project and to not leave the refrigerator door open long as this could change the temperature of the refrigerator.
Step 6-Check on the ice cubes every hour. When the ice cubes in one of the bowls have become at least half melted, take out all four bowls from the refrigerator and move on to step 7. (Be sure to take the bowls out before the ice cubes in two or more bowls have completely melted.)
Depending on how cold your refrigerator is, it may take about four hours for the ice cubes to become at least half melted.
While you are waiting, make a data table like Table 1 in your lab notebook.
Step 7-Carefully pour the liquid water from one of the bowls into a cup with a spout, such as a large measuring cup. Make sure the ice cubes stay in the bowl, but get as much liquid into the cup as possible. Then carefully pour the liquid from the cup into the graduated cylinder. Record how much liquid was in the bowl (the amount of ice melted) in the data table in your lab notebook. After recording your results, clean out and dry the cup and graduated cylinder.
Alternatively, you could use a funnel instead of a cup with a spout and funnel the liquid directly into the graduated cylinder from the bowl.
Step 8-Repeat step 7 with the three other bowls.
When pouring the liquid from the bowl with the sand, try to leave as much sand in the bowl as possible.
Step 9-Now let the ice cubes completely melt in their bowls (you can leave them at room temperature). Once all of the ice cubes are melted, repeat steps 7–8 (but this time you will not need to worry about keeping the ice cubes in the bowls). Record the amount of liquid remaining in each bowl in your data table.
Step 10-Calculate the total amount of water (originally in ice cube form) that was in each bowl. To do this, add the "amount melted" to the "amount remaining" for each bowl. Record the total amount for each bowl in your data table.
For example, if the amount melted was 65 mL and the amount remaining was 25 mL, the total amount would be 90 mL.
Step 11-Calculate the percentage of ice that was melted (when you first took the bowls out of the refrigerator) for each bowl. Do this by dividing the amount melted by the total amount.
For example, if 65 mL was melted, and the total amount was 90 mL, the percentage melted would be 72%.
Step 12-Clean out and dry the bowls. Then repeat steps 1–11 at least two more times so that you have done at least three trials total.

Substance
Amount Melted
(ml)
Amount remaining
(ml)
Total amount
(ml)
Percentage melted
(ml)
Salt
Sugar
Sand
Nothing
Slide # 11
Conclusion

What pretty much happen in my experiment is the sand made the ice melt the fastest , then it was the salt and then it was the sugar n then he ice with no substance. I think the sand made the ice melt the fastest because sand absorbs water and because it has salt in it. My hypothesis was supported by the experiment.
Slide #9
Data table
7.5ml
5.5ml
8ml
6ml
7.5ml
9.5ml
7ml
15ml
15ml
15ml
9ml
15ml
50%
36.6%
53.3%
40%
Slide #12
Errors
A few errors I had while doing this experiment is the refrigerator being open over and over which made it kinda hard to determine what actually melted the fastest. Another problem I came across is pouring what remained in the bowl that had the sand because the sand absorbed so my number is not accurate.
Slide # 13
Websites
www.sciencebuddies.com

http://science.howstuffworks.com

Slide # 14
Pictures
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6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Slide # 10
graph

Time (hrs)
Substances
Salt
Sand
Sugar
No substance
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