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Transcript of Cancer
Impact of Genetics and Technology on Society: Cancer
Examples of Cancer
They're many risk factors and causes for cancer. These include chemical, environment, food, genetics, hormones, radiation, sunlight, tobacco, weight and infectious agents. The most common risk factors for cancer include aging, tobacco, sun exposure, radiation exposure, chemicals and other substances, some viruses and bacteria, certain hormones, family history of cancer, alcohol, poor diet, lack of physical activity, or being overweight.
The environment around you is a major risk factor when it comes to cancer.
work place hazards
are main causes of cancer. Even if you don't smoke, you might inhale secondhand smoke if you go where people are smoking or you live with someone who smokes. Chemicals in your home or workplace, such as asbestos and benzene, also are associated with an increased risk of cancer.
Environmental Risk Factors
Smoking is responsible for at least 30% of all cancer deaths.
coronary heart disease.
peripheral vascular disease.
numerous cancers including cancers of the lung, mouth, oesophagus, larynx, kidney, pancreas, bladder, stomach and cervix.
and other diseases and conditions.
Smoking causes one-tenth of CVD worldwide.
Globally, tobacco causes some 6 million deaths a year.
The risk for coronary heart disease is 25 per cent higher in female smokers than in male smokers.
Tobacco Risk Factors
When it come to genetics, your risk for cancer being passed onto you is low unless there are
at least two
people with the same type of cancer on the same side of your family. The more members of your family that have been diagnosed with the same type of cancer, and the younger they were when diagnosed, will be more likely for there to be a family link.
It's only likely that a cancer gene is present in your family if:
One of your parents, or siblings have had two different types of cancer
Two or more closely related people in your family have had the same type of cancer, or have had types of cancer that are sometimes connected
Members of your family have had cancer at an unusually young age
Genetic Risk Factors
A malignant growth or tumor
resulting from the division of abnormal cells.
Cancer is not just one disease but many
diseases. There are more than 100
different types of cancer.
is a cancer that starts in blood stem cells. When blood stem cells in the bone marrow change and can't grow or behave properly it creates Leukemia cells. Over a period of time, the leukemia cells overpower normal blood cells so that they can no longer do their jobs. Blood stem cells develop into either lymphoid stem cells or myeloid stem cells.
Lymphoid stem cells
develop into lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Lymphocytes make antibodies to help fight infection.
Myeloid stem cells
develop into red blood cells, granulocytes, monocytes or platelets. Red blood cells carry oxygen to all tissues of the body.
is a malignant tumour that starts in the cells of the breast. Malignant means that it can spread, or metastasize, to other parts of the body.
Cells in the breast sometimes change and no longer grow or behave normally. These changes may lead to benign breast conditions such as atypical hyperplasia and cysts
Lung cancer is a spreading tumour that begins inside the cells of the lung. When cancer starts inside lung cells, it's called primary lung cancer.
There is two types of lung cancer,
Non-small cell lung cancer
small cell lung cancer
Non–small cell lung cancer
usually starts in glandular cells on the outer part of the lung. This type of cancer is called adenocarcinoma. Non–small cell lung cancer can also start in flat, thin cells called squamous cells.
Small cell lung cancer
usually starts in cells that line the bronchi in the centre of the lungs. The main types of small cell lung cancer are small cell carcinoma and combined small cell carcinoma
is a malignant tumour that starts in the cells of the kidney. Malignant means that it can spread, or metastasize, to other parts of the body.
Cells in the kidney sometimes change and no longer grow or behave normally. These changes may lead to benign conditions such as cysts. They can also lead to benign tumours such as renal adenoma
Rare types of kidney cancer can also develop. These include
adult Wilms tumour.
Scientists usually look at 3 things to determine if something is a risk factor for cancer:
1.How much, how often and under what circumstances people are exposed to a particular substance. Scientists are more confident that exposure is directly related to cancer risk when
the risk of cancer increases as exposure increases
the risk of cancer decreases as exposure decreases
2.How strong and how consistent the relationship is between exposure and the risk of developing cancer.
3.How similar the findings are in studies done in people and in the laboratory. When these studies come to similar conclusions, scientists are more confident about the relationship between exposure to a substance and its role as a risk factor for cancer.
Low risk does not mean that a person will not get cancer. It means that there is less chance of getting cancer.
High risk means that the chances of getting cancer may be greater, but it does not mean that cancer will develop. It isn’t always clear why one person gets cancer and another doesn’t.
Cancer is currently responsible for
deaths per day, and
people a year across the world.
people are diagnosed with some form of cancer every year.