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CORE 1 - Better Health for Individuals

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James Boyer

on 27 January 2016

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Transcript of CORE 1 - Better Health for Individuals

Core 1 - Better Health for Individuals
Fq 1 - What does health mean to individuals?

Fq 2 - What influences the health of individuals?

Fq 3 - What strategies help to promote the health of individuals?

Focus Question 1 - What does health mean to individuals?
Healthy
Unhealthy
Draw this table and compile a list of terms or phrases that would describe either healthy or unhealthy.
THINK
Below your table write your own definition for health.

PAIR
Share your definition with your partner and write a new definition combining or improving on the two.

Share
Share with another group of 2 and come up with your best definition.
'Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. It involves more than just the absence of disease or infirmity.' (WHO, 1948)

'To the community, good health means a high standard of living, greater participation in making and implementing community health policies and reducing health costs.' (Aus Better Health Commission, 1986)

'Wellness is an active process through which people become aware of, and make choices towards, a more successful existance.' (US National Wellness Institute).
Meanings of Health

Definitions of health
Dot points big heading
double underling

Dash Points little heading
single underline different colour
Dimensions of Health
Physical health is not the only aspect of being healthy. It is now widely recognised that there is a relationship between a person's body, mind and spirit. This is a holistic view of health. The modern concept of health comprises various dimensions:
- Physical Health
- Mental Health
- Emotional Health
- Social Health
- Spiritual Health

Summarise each dimension from textbook p. 5-6
Relative and Dynamic Nature of Health
Relative and Dynamic Nature of Health
Relative to another period of time, relation to potential, or in relation to others.
Relative to your peers are you healthy? Relative to your grandparents are you healthy? Relative to your level of health five years ago, are you healthy?
Our state of health changes over time.
Dash point
Read and summarise pages 7-9. This information will help with answering the homework questions.
Perceptions of Health
Perceptions of the health of the individual
What is a perception?
A young person's perception of their health is a
subjective
rating. Some people perceive themselves as healthy despite suffering from one or more
chronic
diseases, while others perceive themselves as ill even when no
objective
evidence can be found.
Health and well-being play an important role in defining many aspects of a young person's life. (Titan page 11)
Perceptions of the health of others
page 8/9 titan WS
Australian's are generally healthy and their health continues to improve. However, this is not true for all Australian's, factors that contribute to
inequalities
include: age, gender, ethnicity, social and economic factors. (Titan page 12 WS)
Implications of Different Perceptions of Health
Different perceptions of health can impact communities in various ways. At the individual level, different perceptions of health may lead to appropriate or inappropriate access to health services.
Compare how different perceptions may lead to different health outcomes for these three individuals: The hyperchondriac; the informed, responsible individual; and the iconic Australian male with the 'she'll be right mate' attitude.
Brainstorm the diffferent social groups within Australian Society. Then rank them from most health to least healthy.
Perceptions of Health as a social construct
We construct our own meanings of health depending on our own social circumstances.

It can be view from a socio-cultural perspective which allows us to look at the underlying causes or contributing factors relating to health status. Health is not only an individual's concern; often it has an impact on the wider community.
Until recently, health was viewed using a biomedical approach. We get ill or injured, then a solution is found. The issue with this is that it does not respond to the interrelated socio-cultural influences that contribute to disease or illness. There needs to be a shift from treatment, to identifying and fixing the underlying cause.
And preventing disease in the future. EG. Sun safety.

Perceptions of Health as a Social Construct Con.
The social environment includes social, cultural, physical, political and economic factors.
Eg. Low SE-Status, more likely to to smoke, drink alcohol, have an inadequate diet.
Sexual orientation can impact on health status. Same sex attracted males are more likely to encounter disapproval or discrimination, develop stress-related illness eg depression.

Viewing health as a social construct challenges the notion that health is an individuals responsibility. Creating equality amongst Australian's is needed to ensure adequate access to health services, depending on the needs of individuals.

Perceptions of Health as a Social Construct Con.
Understanding that heath is socially constructed also allows us to, over time, change how we define health.
Eg. body image as represented in the media, throughout the 20th century being tanned is seen as desirable, now we have an understanding of the effects of the sun on our skin. These aim to change societies perception of what is healthy. "There's no such thing as a safe tan"



Impact of the Media, Peers and Family
These three things can impact in positive or negative ways. Children can learn unhealthy or healthy habits from their parents. Eg smoking, alcohol intake.
Teenagers are heavily influenced by their peer, they exchange health related information, and can participate in risk behaviours as a result of peer pressure.
http://demo.fb.se/e/girlpower/retouch/retouch/
1. Print body image activity from file.
2. http://www.smh.com.au/national/young-men-dying-from-heart-disease-linked-to-steroid-use-20140226-33ije.html
3. massive obsession insight sbs

Health Behaviours
of Young People
Rates of disease
Life Expectancy
Death Rates
Education
Home Life
Risk and Protective Factor Cards
Focus Question 2 - What influences the health of Individuals?
The Determinants of Health
Brainstorm - What things impact on our health most?

Determinants of health include individual, socio-cultural, socio-economic, and environmental factors.

These determinants help to explain and predict trends in health. They help to provide reasons why some individuals experience better or worse health than others.

One influence can influence and determine the nature of another group of determinants.

Eg. education and employment can influence a persons health behaviours, mental well-being and issues relating to safety.
The Determinants of Health
Which in turn they can influence biomedical factors such as body weight and glucose metabolism. All the while our genetics are playing a role.

The only health determinants addressed in PDHPE are determinants that are modifiable and assist in reaching optimum health.

The determinants of health may vary in the level of risk they pose. High-risk factors include those that place a person at high risk of developing an illness. Smoking is an example; Compared with a non-smoker, a smoker is 10 times more likely to develop lung cancer.

http://au.news.yahoo.com/sunday-night/video/watch/21779040/the-last-straw-part-one/
Individual Factors
Knowledge, skills and attitudes
The
ability to acquire knowledge about health and develop skills is a powerful determinant health. It enables someone to recognise health problems, make choices about behaviour and access services.
Being informed about risks can motivate people to choose health enhancing behaviours.
The internet allows for easy access to information for the general population. However, despite this people still behave in ways that can harm their own health.

Genetics
Our heredity is determined by our genetic makeup, the genes passed on from our parents. Certain diseases are inherited, eg asthma, type 1 diabetes, heart disease and some cancers. Heredity is a risk factor. Can't control it.
Socio-cultural Factors
Health inequities exist between different social groups.

Family
Includes structure, has a strong impact on health and well-being of a child. eg. Married people tend to be healthier and live longer than unmarried. This could be due to sharing of material resources and social support, and also encouragement of healthy behaviours.
Children in lone-parent households have poorer health, could be from material disadvantage as a result of low income or unemployment. Family break down can also have severe social consequences for children and their parents.

missing for next time SES and environmental


Degree of control individuals can exert over their health
Is good health just a case of making good health decisions?

Modifiable and non-modifiable health determinants
Behaviour is a major determinant of health status. Health behaviours are modifiable actions that can affect health either positively (regular PA) or negatively (smoking).
Some determinants eg. age are impossible to modify, obesity on the other hand is a risk factor for many conditions, but in many cases individuals are able to make changes that will help them to obtain a healthy weight.
People can change individual behaviours, but have little control over individual factors eg heredity, environment and access - these are non-modifiable health determinants.
The different life stages include infancy, early childhood, childhood, puberty and adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood and older people.

The amount of control over the determinants of health changes with age. Some aspects that were non-modifiable when young may become modifiable as we age.

The influence of certain determinants may be much more important when we are a certain age eg. education when at school.

Changing influence of determinants through different life stages
Health varies from one society to another. Each culture or society may define health differently, and these definitions are likely to change over time. A social view of health helps us to understand the range of health determinants influencing a person throughout the life stages and how these can contribute to poor health outcomes.
Recognises the interrelationship of determinants
Health as a Social Construct
Health is a dynamic quality that is affected by a complex interrelationship between individuals and their physical, social, economic and political environments. Recognising this is reflected in a social view of health. Health is created in the settings where people live and work.
A social view of health recognises the need for:
- personal skills development
- empowerment of the community to take action to promote health
- creation of social and physical environments that are supportive of health
- an awareness of the impact of public policy on health
- health services that are orientated towards health promotion and the preventino of ill-health.

Risk cannot be attribute solely to the individual risk behaviours. Instead, health is associated with social institutions such as family, communitities, workplace and the health care system. These institutions can support or diminish the health of the individual. Eg. joblessness.
Recognises the interrelationship of determinants
Focus Question 3 - What strategies help to promote the health of individuals?
The process that enables people to improve or have greater control over their health.
Health promotion makes it possible for people to increase control over the determinants of health and thereby improve their health. (Table 3.1 Page 49)

HP is not just the resp of the health sector. The responsibility is shared amongst the following:
Individuals - Health is created by people within the settings of their everyday life; where they learn, work, play and love. Health is created by caring for oneself and others, by being able to make devisions and have control over one's life circumstances. Health promotion includes and encourages individual responsibility and action.
Responsibility for health promotion
What is Health Promotion?
Community groups/schools - Community health programs may have targets on varying scales. They may be directed at individuals, local communities, states or the entire country. Health info is provided to the general public through the mass media. Journalists have an influential role in delivering health information.
Architects, engineers and urban planners contribute to health in the way they plan and build houses and infrastructure, such as roads and park land.
Health Ed and PD are important parts of the school curriculum. Schools also implement health promoting policies eg. "not hat no play", banning smoking on school grounds, and providing healthy choices in the canteen. Schools are very important for health promotion.
Non- Govt Orgs (NGOs) - Include Cancer Council, National Heart Foundation. Govts work with NGOs to improve qualitiy and availability of human and financial resources directed at health promotion.
Govt - All 3 levels of govt have a role in HP.
Local - Respons for community living, environmental and land use planning, recreational facilities, home care, child care, community transport, waste management, food safety.
Stat - Supervise food safety, environmental health and use of drugs and poisons. Disease control, health ed, immunisation, refugee scanning, cancer screening. PSC. Hospitals and mental health factilities.
Responsibility for health promotion
Community groups/schools - Community health programs may have targets on varying scales. They may be directed at individuals, local communities, states or the entire country. Health info is provided to the general public through the mass media. Journalists have an influential role in delivering health information.
Architects, engineers and urban planners contribute to health in the way they plan and build houses and infrastructure, such as roads and park land.
Health Ed and PD are important parts of the school curriculum. Schools also implement health promoting policies eg. "not hat no play", banning smoking on school grounds, and providing healthy choices in the canteen. Schools are very important for health promotion.
Non- Govt Orgs (NGOs) - Include Cancer Council, National Heart Foundation. Govts work with NGOs to improve qualitiy and availability of human and financial resources directed at health promotion.
Govt - All 3 levels of govt have a role in HP.
Local - Respons for community living, environmental and land use planning, recreational facilities, home care, child care, community transport, waste management, food safety.
Stat - Supervise food safety, environmental health and use of drugs and poisons. Disease control, health ed, immunisation, refugee scanning, cancer screening. PSC. Hospitals and mental health factilities.
Responsibility for health promotion
International Organisations - Guide countries in achieving the best health for their citizens. Include the UN, WHO, United Nations Childrens Fund.
UN maintains international peace and security, develops friendly relations between countries, cooperates in solving international economic, social, culture and humanitarian problems. Promotes respect for human rights and fundamentfreedoms.
WHO part of the UN directs and coordinates authority on international health. Produces guidelines and standards and health countries address public health issues. Supports and promotes research.
Responsibility for health promotion
http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2014/01/diagnosing-australia-indigenous-health-gap-201412111141493929.html
Lifestyle/behavioural approaches (Harm Minimisation Approach)
Health Promotion Approaches and Strategies
Various programs target lifestyle/behaviour to improve health. Aim to improve an individuals skill and empower them to take control of their behaviour and attitude. These approaches ensure that individuals:
- develop accurate knowledge about health consequences eg. short and long term effects of OBCT
- find personal meaning and relevance eg. changing drinking habits will bring about stronger family relationships.
- feel positive towards the outcome of their behaviour change.
- are empowered and equipped with the skills.

These changes are difficult when left solely to the individual. National Tabacco Campaign assists people to change their behaviour through a variety of measures. such as QUITLINE, a free phone service people can use to access info any time on changing their smoking patterns, support when trying to quit.

Individual strategies work best when they work in partnership with other means of HP. Individual programs need to target the needs of the population it is trying to assist.
http://www.quitnow.gov.au/internet/quitnow/publishing.nsf/Content/ntc-2009-2013-lp#admaterials
Preventative Medical Approaches
Health Promotion Approaches and Strategies
Many illnesses and diseases can be prevented using vaccinations and health screenings. If an individ has a genetic predisposition to a particular health problem, preventative measures can be put into place to reduce the likelihood of the illness or disease occurring.

Immunisation
Govt provides some vaccines free of charge eg. HPV for young women, which protects them against most cervical cancers.
National Immunisation Program Schedule for children covers diptheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, measles, mumps plus many others. Free of charge, delivered in schools.
Influenza (Flu) is provided for free to all Aus over 65 years old and ATSI over 50 years. Some schools or workplaces offer these for free, particularly schools and child care centres.

Screening
Testing plays a significant role in disease prevention. There are a variety of screens available including full body screens, heart screening and cancer screening. National Screening Programs are carried out for breast, cervical and bowel cancers. Free for high-risk target age groups.
Preventative Medical Approaches (continued)
Health Promotion Approaches and Strategies
Screening Continued
BreastScreen Aust is jointly funded by Fed and State Govts. Aims to reduce mortality and morbidity from Breast Cancer. Targets 50-69 year olds with and without symptoms to undergo screening. Offered throughout metro, rural and regional areas through fixed and mobile areas. Free twice yearly mamograms and follow up of any suspicious areas. Other females may use the service and no referral is required.

National Bowel Screening Program (NBSP) People are sent a screening kit by Medicare Aust and asked to post back their completed faecal occult blood test kit back for analysis. Participants with positive result are advised to consult their GP to discuss further testing. Coordinated by the National Govt with assistance from State and Territories.

http://www.health.gov.au/internet/budget/publishing.nsf/Content/budget2012-hmedia05.htm
Public Health Approaches
Health Promotion Approaches and Strategies
These are undertaken on a large scale and aim to improve the health of all individuals by addressing underlying risk factors. Try to encompass whole communities to embrace positive behaviour change.

Health-promoting schools
Focuses on the interaction between health and education sectors to improve the health of young people. It has a set of policies, practices and activities designed to protect and promote health of students, staff and the wider school community.
Three areas are used that are all related:
- curriculum, teaching and learning practices (eg health integrated into all subjects, could be reading a story in english related to drug use or building health literacy skills to make informed consumer choices)
- school organisation, ehtos and environment (eg. acceptance of diversity through school events, safe and caring environment that respects students, staff and parents; could be space for PE, anti-bullying programs, shade cloth)
- partnerships and services (Use of outside organisations, school visits from police/ambulance about safe partying, experts on raising teens giving workshops to parents/teachers, sharing school facilities with community groups to enhance PA opportuinities.
Public Health Approaches (continued)
Health Promotion Approaches and Strategies
WorkCover NSW
State authority to create safe workpalces, effective return-to-work procedures and security for injured workers. Administer and enforce compliance with OH&S, workers compensation system.
WorkCover have access to all workplaces and are able to target specific issues to improve safety and wellbeing in the workplace.
Use tv campaings, posters on workplace safety, provide information on sun safety, managing safety risks.

http://www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/aboutus/advertisingcampaigns/pages/default.aspx

http://au.news.yahoo.com/sunday-night/video/watch/21706743/union-furious-over-scaffold-collapse/
Principles of Social Justice
Access to good health should be available to all individuals. Whilst most people are generally healthy, the gap is ening in many ares of the Aust Pop. Health inequities have a significant negative impact and marginalised groups (ATSI, low SES, Rural and Remote, Non-English Speaking backgrounds, older people) generally face poorer health.

Health inequities are usually the result of a disadvantaged social position such as; inability to access health information, services and resources; overexposure to various risk factors such as fast food; a health care system that may be unaffordable.

Unfortunately more and higher quality health services tend to be closer to those who are well off and need them less.

Social justice principles need to be considered to ensure all individuals have the opportunity to achieve good health.
Equity
Principles of Social Justice
In order for everyone to achieve good health, access needs to health care needs to be equally distributed. Individuals have the right to good health and governments need to ensure that they can access it. Eg. People in rural communities should have access to a dietitian just as people living in city areas do.
As certain communities have higher health inequitites than others, additional resources may be provided to reduce inequities. (equality does not mean everyone gets the same).
In order to reduce inequalities individuals should be able to participate in the decision-making process within their community.

Australia is a diverse country and needs to consider many factors when dealing with its health issues. Ensuring pop groups are not discriminated against is important in achieving good health for individuals.

EG. Providing health information in various languages, placing health services close to public transport, celebrating various cultural groups and understanding the different health issues of the various pop groups is essntial in ensuring everyone has equal access to good health.
Diversity
Supportive Environments
Principles of Social Justice
Providing environments where people are supported isessential to achieving good health. Homes, workplaces, schools and communities play a vital role in ensuring all people have the opportunity to be valued and make positive contributions to society.
When the environment supports positive health habits, it is easier to make positive choices. Ensuring environments in which people work and live are conducive and supportive for positive health is crucial for improvin the health status of individuals.
Empowering communities and individuals to take action on a health issue close to their heart and enabling people to improve environments is essential in achieving good health.
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