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Racism in Football
Transcript of Racism in Football
Other chants, linked to 'patriotism', have been aimed at the national team: "If you're white your alright, if you're black send 'em back".
Anti-semitic chants have also been reported. Tottenham Hotspur supporters have often been the target of the following chant - "Those yids from Tottenham, the gas man's got them..." 1970 -1980 John Terry was banned for four games and received a £220,000 fine for racially abusing Anton Ferdinand, during a match between Chelsea and Queens Park Rangers on the 23rd of October 2011. Liverpool striker Luis Suárez was banned for 8 matches and fined £40,000 after being found guilty of misconduct against Patrice Evra of Manchester United, on the 15th of October 2011. Case Studies Linguistic determinism - the language you speak limits the thoughts you are capable of speaking (Traxler, 2012).
Social Learning Theory - use people who football fans emulate. - Linguistic determinism has fallen out of favor in psychology (Traxler, 2012). It is based on analysis of Inuit language, which has been devastatingly critiqued by Pullum, 1989 (as cited in Traxler, 2012).
- Removing racist words from language would require a great deal of co-operation and time.
- Footballers have previously worn anti-racism bands with little effect. Private Policing
Technology/CCTV During the 1990's, the importance of challenging racism within sport was widely acknowledged by many agencies involved within the sport. The Task Force's subsequent report ('Eliminating Racism from Football') criticises football authorities, as well as clubs and public/private police for not doing enough to eliminate the problem. What can be done to tackle the problem? A Na Na Nine! Production + Altering language does have an effect on the way people think (Winawer et al., 2007).
+ Using the imitation method is much simpler than LD and could have a much quicker effect. Strengths Define the Problem Football has been beset by a never-ending series of racist incidents; players, football organisations and fans have all been found guilty of racist abuse. Operant Conditioning Punishment (match bans, prison sentences).
Positive reinforcement (ingroup acceptance). Skinner, B. F., Ferster, C. B., & Ferster, C. B. (1997). Schedules of reinforcement. Copley Publishing Group.
Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behaviour of organisms: An experimental analysis. How effective are campaigns? "Let's Kick Racism Out of Football" Garland and Rowe highlighted the importance of local support, for example: equal opportunities program (Northampton Town), the use of fanzines and independent groups (to target racism). Denying racism is evident.
John Barnes: "I bite my tongue and I don't react to it. But the problem then is that people laugh it off and say, 'Well it can't be that serious, because you don't react to it'". + Gives an insight into existing campaigns
+ Uses real life examples
+ Starting point for future research
- Based on opinion
- Lacks statistical verification
- States the problem, with no discussion of the solution. Jon Garland & Michael Rowe (1999): Field of dreams? An assessment of antiracism in British football, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25:2, 335-344 CPS - stop ‘inappropriate crowd behaviour and in particular chanting’.
Government educating football fans on appropriate behaviour? Or getting them to adhere to PC etiquette? There are currently only two black managers across all 92 football clubs, despite the fact that around 25% of professional footballers in the UK are black. Police surveillance and private policing have important implications for attemps to combat racism in the game. However they are of limited use i.e. stewards doing nothing to intervene with racist chants.
Policing and CCTV do not tackle the underlying cause of racism.
'Libero' opposes Section 3 of the Football Offences Act; they see such legislation as being part of "excessive regulation of behaviour at football matches". Libero argues that 'nomal' fan behaviour is resricted along with the latter - fans are being criminalised for supporting their teams.
International journal of Sociology of Law (1999) Policing Racism at Football Matches: An assessment of Recent Developments in Policing Strategies. 27, 251-266 Racism: Prejudice or discrimination
directed against someone of a different race.
John Terry (football)
Tiger Woods (golf)
Joel Ward (hockey) Redefine the Problem Critical Analysis Consequences on Society The huge influence football has means undermining racism as a serious problem in football can lead to a detrimental attitude in society where racism is not seen as serious an offence as it truly is. This influence also means young children imitate the behaviour of footballers, which include racist remarks. Racism hinders unity by creating an 'us and them' mentality leading to conflict and segregation. Like any kind of discrimination it is emotionally upsetting and creates social seperation. "What happens on the field influences what happens off the field. You see children as young as six imitating the behaviour they see on the field." Pullum, G. K. (1989). The great Eskimo vocabulary hoax. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 7, 275-281.
Traxler, M. J. (2012). Language and Thought. Introduction to Psycholinguistics, 23.
Winnawer, J., Witthoft, N., Frank, M. C., Wu, L., Wade, A. R., & Boroditsky, L. (2007). Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 104, 7780-7785. Webliography http://www.battleofideas.org.uk/index.php/2012/session_detail/6780
http://www.bbcsport.co.uk Any Questions?