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A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway

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Elizabeth Doyle

on 16 December 2015

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Transcript of A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway

Life in Europe
· Hadley gave birth to John Hadley Nicanor Hemingway in 1923
· Attended the Festival of San Fermin in 1925 with his wife and a group of British and American expatriates, which provided the basis for The Sun Also Rises
· Hemingway had an affair with Pauline Pfeiffer which contributed to his divorce with Hadley
· Married Pauline after his divorce in 1927, stayed together for 13 years and had two children: Gregory and Patrick
· His life started falling apart in 1928 when he found out his father shot himself in the head with a Civil War revolver
· Pauline and Hemingway divorced after he returned from the Spanish Civil War partially due to an affair he was having with Martha Gellhorn
· Hemingway married Martha in 1940, whom he divorced after 5 years when he met Mary Walsh
Has a punctuation fetish
Allergic to periods
Longest sentence: 424 words
Ernest Hemingway survived through anthrax, malaria, pneumonia, skin cancer, and more.
Hemingway wrote a 6 word short story, “For sale: baby shoes, never worn”, because of a bar room bet.
Had a 6 toed cat- the reason why there are a bunch of 6 toed cats in Key West, Florida
Awarded the Nobel Prize
About Ernest Hemingway...
Novel lit analysis
WWI Background
Causes of WW1
Serbia is tired of being controlled by Austria
The Black Hand shoots Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Allies of both Serbia and Austria defend each other and eventually several countries are involved
Started off on German side, jumped to the other early in the war
During this time period....
Being unmarried and pregnant was often seen as taboo or culturally wrong
Why Henry and Catherine had to keep their relationship a secret
Overview of the Novel
Ernest Hemingway
A Farewell to Arms

Point of View
What A Farewell to Arms means...
Saying goodbye to war, fighting, and weapons
There is a poem written by George Peel in the 1500's named "A Farewell to Arms", but it is not known if Hemingway was aware of this poem (but more on that later...)
Saying goodbye to his comrades' and loved ones' arms
HIS golden locks Time hath to silver turn'd;
O Time too swift, O swiftness never ceasing!
His youth 'gainst time and age hath ever spurn'd,
But spurn'd in vain; youth waneth by increasing:
Beauty, strength, youth, are flowers but fading seen;
Duty, faith, love, are roots, and ever green.

His helmet now shall make a hive for bees;
And, lovers' sonnets turn'd to holy psalms,
A man-at-arms must now serve on his knees,
And feed on prayers, which are Age his alms:
But though from court to cottage he depart,
His Saint is sure of his unspotted heart.

And when he saddest sits in homely cell,
He'll teach his swains this carol for a song,--
'Blest be the hearts that wish my sovereign well,
Curst be the souls that think her any wrong.'
Goddess, allow this aged man his right
To be your beadsman now that was your knight.
Written in first person narrative
Frederick is the narrator
At the more philosophical moments in the book, the point of view changes to second person for effect.
Other Works by
(1926) The Torrents of Spring
(1926) The Sun Also Rises
(1929) A Farewell to Arms
(1937) To Have and Have Not
(1940) For Whom the Bell Tolls
(1950) Across the River and into the Trees
(1952) The Old Man and the Sea
(1970) Islands in the Stream
(1986) The Garden of Eden
(1999) True at First Light
Early Life and Career
Born July 21, 1899 in Cicero, Illinois
Raised in Chicago by his parents, Clarence and Grace Hemingway
Ernest learned to appreciate the outdoors and its numerous activities at a cabin in northern Michigan
At Oak Park and River Forest High School, he worked on the sports section in his school newspaper
Worked for
Kansas City Star
after his graduation, influencing hid stripped-down prose style
Worked in journalism before publishing his story collection
In Our Time
Served in the Italian Army as an ambulance driver
Awarded with the Italian Silver Medal of Bravery
Injuries put him in a hospital in Milan
Met Agnes von Kurowsky whom he was engaged to, until she left him for another man
At age 20, he was still recovering and returned to the US where he stayed in Michigan for a short amount of time
Took a job at the
Toronto Star
Met his future wife of 6 years, Hadley Richardson, in Chicago
Moved to Paris where he continued to work for the
Toronto Star
as a foreign correspondent
"I could remember Catherine but I knew I would get crazy if I thought about her when I was not sure yet I would see her...You had lost your cars and your men as a floorwalker loses the stock of his department in a fire. There was however, no insurance. You were out of it now. You had no more obligation" (Hemingway 199)

"They talked too much at the mess and I drank wine because tonight we were not all brothers unless I drank a little and talked with the priest about Archbishop Ireland who was, it seemed, a noble man and with whose injustice, the injustices he had received and in which I participated as an American, and of which I have never heard, I feigned acquaintance" (Hemingway 38).
Character Analysis
Frederic Henry
Catherine Barkley
*Biblical references
5 books within the novel
Each book ends on a sad note
Higher emphasis on emotion as books continue
Saint Anthony Amulet
"She was unclasping something from her neck. She put it in my hand. 'It's a Saint Anthony' she said.
...'You're not a Catholic, are you?'
'No. But they say a Saint Anthony's very useful' (Hemingway 43)
'You see, darling, it would mean everything to me if i had any religion. But I haven't any religion.'
'You gave me Saint Anthony'
'That was for luck. Someone gave it to me.' 'Then nothing worries you?'
'Only being sent away from you. You're my religion.
You're all I've got." (Hemingway 116)
The diction varies throughout the novel
Romantic and elaborate when with Catherine
Masculine and concise when not with Catherine
"But at my back I always hear Time's winged chariot hurrying near" (Hemingway 154).
" That was a very strange night. I do not know what I had expected, death perhaps and shooting in the dark and running, but nothing happened" (Hemingway 218).
Fun Facts about Ernest...
War Experience
Rising Action
Falling Action
Henry and Catherine escape to Switzerland
She is heavily pregnant, so they have to stay near a hospital
"'I am the snake. I am the snake of reason'
'You're getting it mixed. The apple was reason'
'No, it was the snake,' He was more cheerful." –Ch. 25
Genesis: Rinaldi admits he is the snake of reason. Keep in mind that an apple was never actually mentioned, although that is what the fruit is interpreted to be.

Henry: "'The coward dies a thousand deaths, the brave but one,'"
Catherine: ‘’[the brave] dies perhaps two thousand deaths if he's intelligent. He simply doesn't mention them.'" –Ch. 21
Unintentional allusion to Julius Caesar / Shakespeare: “Cowards die many times before their deaths; / The valiant never taste of death but once". A coward goes through life scared making it seem like he/she has died often, where the braver ones are only ever killed once.
Lieutenant Frederic Henry
Narrator/ protagonist
An American ambulance driver in the Italian army
Life is quiet and boring until he meets Catherine
Gets caught in an explosion and requires medical care
Eventually gets Catherine pregnant
Abandons officer post and almost gets arrested
Runs off to Switzerland
Catherine Barkley
English nurse’s aide
Falls in love with Henry
Had a fiancé who died before she met Henry
Follows Henry to the hospital in Milan
Gets pregnant
Is left alone and pregnant when Henry goes back to war
Escapes to Switzerland with Henry
Lieutenant Rinaldi
A surgeon in the Italian army
Rinaldi is Henry’s closest friend
Introduced Henry to Catherine, because Rinaldi liked Catherine first
Of unknown sexuality, questionably saucy
Seduces prostitutes, talks about kissing Henry...
Contrasts with Henry's bold, masculine feel
Uses a mixture of polysyndeton, asyndeton, anaphora, and run on sentences
"I had wanted to go to Abruzzi. I had gone to no place where the roads were frozen and hard as iron, where it was clear cold and dry and the snow was dry and powdery and hare-tracks in the snow and the peasants took off their hats and called you Lord and there was good hunting. I had gone to no such place but to the smoke of cafés and nights when the room whirled and you needed to look at the wall to make it stop, nights in bed, drunk, when you knew that was all there was, and the strange excitement of waking and not knowing who it was with you, and the world all unreal in the dark, etc, etc, . . . He had not had it but understood that I had really wanted to go to Abruzzi but had not gone and we were still friends, with many tastes alike, but with the difference between us" (Hemingway 11).
Frederic returns to the hospital to meet with Catherine
Frederic tells Catherine about his running away and they plan to escape to Switzerland, which is neutral
One night, Frederic is warned of the army's arriving to arrest him
Frederic leaves with Catherine on a rowboat to Switzerland
"Perhaps wars weren't won any more. Maybe they went on forever"(Hemingway 103).
"If people bring so much courage to this world the world has to kill them to break them, so of course it kills them. The world breaks every one and afterward many are strong at the broken places. But those that will not break it kills. It kill the very good and the very gentle and the very brave impartially. If you are none of these you can be sure it will kill you too but there will be no special hurry"(Hemingway 216).

"'You will be decorated. They want to get you the medaglia d'argento but perhaps they can get only the bronze."
'What for?'
'Because you are gravely wounded. They say if you can prove you did any heroic act you can get the silver. Otherwise it will be the bronze. Tell me exactly what happened. Did you do any heroic act?'
'No,' I said. 'I was blown up while we were eating cheese'"(Hemingway 55).

Important Themes
Love vs. War
Realism vs. Romanticism
Masculinity vs. Femininity
Duty vs. Freedom
Life vs. Death
Frederic arrives to a new hospital, where he gets operated on
Catherine, by Deus Ex Machina, is moved to the same facility
The couple fornicated
Frederic is sent back to the war front
Frederic comes back to the front lines to a distraught Rinaldi and friends.
The Italian army retreats from their location.
One of Frederic's group, Aymo, is shot by those believing he is a German soldier.
Suddenly being accused of being a German in hiding, Frederic escapes execution and hops a train to find Catherine.
Frederic Henry describes the small Italian village that he lives in
Rinaldi introduces Henry to Catherine Barkley, a nurse he is interested in, but she likes Henry more
Henry and Catherine start to become a couple
One day he hears of an attack and goes to it, making up an excuse to tell Catherine and telling her not to worry
At this point, she gives him the St. Anthony medal to protect him
A trench mortar exploded in the dugout, badly damaging Henry's leg, sending him to the hospital
Henry is sent off to Milan for medical care
Luckily for him, Catherine is also being sent to work in the hospital in Milan
Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2014. <http://
"Ernest Hemingway - Biographical." Ernest Hemingway - Biographical. N.p., n.d.
Web. 28 Oct. 2014. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1954/hemingway-bio.html>.
"Ernest Hemingway Biography ~ The Last Days." Ernest Hemingway Biography ~
The Last Days. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2014. <http://www.lostgeneration.com/lastdays.htm>.
"A Farewell to Arms (1932) - Trailer." YouTube. N.p., 8 May 2014. Web. 30 Oct. 2014.
"A Farewell to Arms (To Queen Elizabeth)." George Peele:. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct.
2014. <http://www.daypoems.net/poems/104.html>.
New York Times, n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <http://www.nytimes.com/
Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms. New York: Scribner Classics, 1997.

Mary and Ernest went on a safari together to Africa. While in Africa, they were involved in two plane crashes. Mary got away with a couple fractured ribs. The second plane crash, where the plane caught fire, took a huge toll on Ernest. He used his head as a battering ram to open the main door, leading to many injuries. Jeffrey Meyer lists the injuries in Hemingway’s biography: “His skull was fractured, two discs of his spine were cracked, his right arm and shoulder were dislocated, his liver, right kidney and spleen were ruptured, his sphincter muscle was paralyzed by compressed vertebrae on the iliac nerve, his arms, face and head were burned by the flames of the plane, his vision and hearing were impaired...”
After the crashes, they traveled to Venice and back to Cuba
Won the Nobel Prize, but wrote a written acceptance that was read in Sweden because his injuries prevented him from being able to make the speech himself
Constantly battling deteriorating health along with drinking and emotional problems
Left Cuba in July of 1960 and slowly made his way to Idaho away from all his publicity
Treated at the Mayo Clinic where they performed electro shock therapy, which actually hastened his demise and caused a catastrophic memory loss which made writing impossible
Hemingway was battling depression and paranoia and often threatened suicide
Committed suicide on July 2, 1961 in Ketchum, Idaho
Mary issued this statement: "Mr. Hemingway accidentally killed himself while cleaning a gun this morning at 7:30 A.M. No time has been set for the funeral services, which will be private." It took her a long time to accept that her husband had followed through on his threats of suicide.

Literal Imagery
"When I woke I looked around. There was sunlight coming in through the shutters. I saw the big armoire, the bare walls, and two chairs. My legs in the dirty bandages, stuck straight out in the bed. I was careful not to move them. I was thirsty and I reached for the bell and pushed the button. I heard the door open and looked and it was a nurse. She looked young and pretty" (Hemingway 84).
Figurative Imagery
"She had wonderfully beautiful hair and I would lie sometimes and watch her twisting it up in the light that came in the open door and it shone even in the night as water shines sometimes just before it is really daylight" (Hemingway 114).
Full transcript