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Copy of The Study of Human Society and Communities

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rachel boschma-wynn

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Transcript of Copy of The Study of Human Society and Communities

THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY To understand human social behavior is one of the main concerns of social scientists. This can be done in two major ways TO FOCUS ON THE PATTERNS OF INTERPERSONAL INTERACTIONS THAT CHARACTERIZE OUR EVERYDAY LIVES TO CONCENTRATE ON THE LARGER ASPECTS OF THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE THAT AFFECT PEOPLE's LIVES. MICROSOCIOLOGICAL MACROSOCIOLOGICAL The Nature of Society SOCIETY is the counterpart of all the biological adaptions that cause one species to survive and another to become instinct. DINOSAURS HUMANS HUMAN SOCIETY Acquaintances Characteristics of Human Society A SOCIETY OCCUPIES A TERRITORY A SOCIETY IS A SOCIAL SYSTEM
A SOCIETY IS RELATIVELY LARGE
A SOCIETY RECRUITS MOST OF ITS MEMBERS FROM WITHIN
A SOCIETY SUSTAINS ITSELF ACROSS GENERATIONS
A SOCIETY's MEMBERS SHARE A CULTURE
As a social system, a society is made up of individuals and groups that interact with each other. Interactions that exist in a society are expected to be relative to all of it's members as a single change in a segment of the society will affect all the other parts of the system. A society is larger in comparison with its surrounding population. It integrates all the smaller social groups and units of which it is composed
family
neighborhood
communities
In short, society is a group of families, neighborhoods and communities all together. Most members of any society are those born to it, and who are taught the basic norms and practices of the society.

Cases like "MIGRATION" are also means of joining a society. However, before any individual can be fully accepted into a society, he/she must first adjust/adapt or be taught the practices of the society whom he/she wishes to migrate into. People in a society must have the ability to ENDURE and PRODUCE and SUSTAIN at least several generations of members.

Conditions like hunger and extreme poverty are some of the threats to a society's sustainability. Each member of a society, individuals acquire a repertory of ways of thinking, feeling, and acting.

A culture consists mainly on symbols, norms, and values that are shared by members on the society.

Sharing a culture gives the people the sense of purpose to sustain the patterns of interaction that hold together a society. A society can also be defined as a group who occupies a specific habitat.

TYPES OF SOCIETIES HUNTING AND FOOD GATHERING SOCIETIES The earliest form of human society survived by foraging for resources and animals around them.

Vegetables Foods
Fruits

With tools made of stones, woods, bones, and etc. the early societies also sought for other sources of food.

Fishing
Hunting wild animals
Collecting shellfish
"Hunting is the key characteristic in the development of human social organization."
-Richard Leakey This was a place where infants could be cared for and where the meat and plant food could be brought. This also served as their Headquarters.
Males were the hunters while the females were tasked with child care and plant food gathering.
As society was formed, each individual became more dependent on the activities and the trust of others in the group. This gave rise to closely-knit social groups. Fichter and his associates summarized a package of traits derived from hunting and food gathering. A BASE CAMP
A DIVISION OF LABOR
THE DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATION
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES Started some 12,000 to 15,000 years ago, this society relied on human muscle power and hand-held tools to cultivate fields.

Anthropologists believed that women were the founders and inventors of this form of food production. Deliberately planting seeds with the idea of having a source of food in the future. It is said that the cultivation of rice has had repeated at least three times in three different places. 11,000 years ago THAILAND MIDDLE EAST about 10,000 years ago MESOAMERICA 6,000 - 9,000 years ago (rice) (wheat barley and rye) (corn) Anthropologists identified two distinct approaches to horticulture SUBSISTENCE FARMING SURPLUS FARMING














PASTORAL SOCIETIES Though they rely mainly on herding and the domesticatoin of animals for food and clothing, this society originated in regions not suitable for plant domestication.

Most AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES These societies are characterized by the use of the plow in food production.

Agriculture is often believed to be more efficient than horticulture. INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES Using mechanical means (machine and chemical processes) for the production of goods.

Constituted an entirely new form of society that requires an immense, mobile diversity specialized, highly skilled, and well-coordinated labor force.

Members of the labor force were required to be educated (at least able to read and write). Industrial societies are divided along class lines Society allows private ownership of capital
Puts all capital in the hands of the state Socialism
Capitalism
All industrial societies have at least two social classes A large labor force that produces goods and services but has little or no influence on what is done with them A much smaller group that determines what shall be produced and how it will be distributed & INDUSTRIALISM Changes brought about by KINSHIP now plays a smaller role in pubic affairs
Industrial societies are HIGHLY SECULARIZED
The rise of BUREAUCRACY as the symbol of industrialism as a way of life POST-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES DISSOLUTIONS OF SOCIETY There are four conditions that will bring about the dissolution of a society If its members are killed off
If its members become apathetic, no longer caring whether or not the society continues to exist
If society falls into a state of chaos from which it cannot free itself
If the society is absorbed into another society as a result of conquest for example THE STUDY OF COMMUNITY MEANING AND NATURE OF COMMUNITY Aspects included in the definition of a community TERRITORIAL ASPECT (Geographical area)
SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT (Social interaction)
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT (Common ties) According to George Hillery, community consists of people who live close to one another (territorial area), who interact with one another frequently (social interaction) and who feel that they have some coomon traits or values that they share with one another (common ties).
FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNITY A SYSTEM OF PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION,
& CONSUMPTION A SYSTEM OF SOCIALIZATION A SYSTEM OF SOCIAL CONTROL A SYSTEM OF SOCIAL PARTICIPATION A SYSTEM OF MUTUAL SUPPORT A COMMUNITY must provide for the basic needs of members and their group, APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF COMMUNITY As a TERRITORIAL UNIT As a SOCIAL GROUP As a SOCIAL SYSTEM As a NETWORK OF INTERACTIONS As UNITS OF OBSERVATION The community maby be seen as consisting of people who are more than an aggregate of isolated individuals and who often interact with one another, have a shared culture, and find their contact with one another meaningful. a body of members
one or more tests of membership
a collection of assigned roles
a set of norms The social system view looks at the community as a relatively enclosed system of interaction centered in some locality. As a social system, the community encompasses a broad range of interrelated institutions; Sociologists and social anthropologists are interested in the nature and function of the community. CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMMUNITY POPULATION AGGREGATE PREFERABLE TO HUMAN GROUP DELIMITED AREA SHARING OF HISTORICAL HERITAGE THE NUMBER OF SERVICE INSTITURIONS PARTICIPATING IN A COMMON LIFE CONCIOUSNESS OF LOCAL UNITY ABILITY TO ACT TOGETHER IN SOLVING CIVIC PROBLEMS CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION THE SIZE OF THE POPULATION SECONDARY ASSOCIATION SOCIAL TOLERANCE SECONDARY CONTROLS SOCIAL MOBILITY VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS INDIVIDUATION SPATIAL SEGREGATION RURAL AND URBAN INTERACTION PATTERN A community is a type of social grouping which has a system or structure of interrelated parts. It is a human population living within a geographical area and carrying on a common interdependent life. Its essence lies in the relationships within it. RURAL URBAN Primary contacts among the population
Complete and solid due to people's cooperation
Gemeinschaft in nature
Sacred
Homogeneous in terms of population
Familiarity among the members
Life is characterized by general competence Secondary contacts among the population
Population is segmented due to limited and minimal personal relationships
Gesselschaft in nature
Secular
Population is heterogeneous in terms of occupation, background, attainment and lifestyle
There is an element of anonymity among the people, lesser interaction, lesser personal contacts
Life is characterized by specialization FOLK SOCIETIES Robert Redfield defines folk society as a group of homogeneous, isolated, nonliterate people living in a small community with a high degree of group solidarity.

It offers an ideal unit of observation for students of society.

Around the world there remain many isolated settlements, hamlets, villages, and small towns of less than 3thousand residents.

Robert Redfield (1897-1958) studied a village in Mexico and puiblished what has since become a classic community study intitled Tepotzlan Often found in tropical jungles

Must be moved every few years

Small settlements and solid neighborhood

Authority is based on positions inherited by males through kinship system
Thickly populated and permanent settlements

Social stratification is well established

Interested in expansion

Has an organized military force Pastoralists who follow their herds in a never-ending quest for pasture and water. (seminomads) They consist of relatively small, mobile communities.

Organized along male-centered kinship groups The spread of computer industries.

Knowledge and information are the hallmarks of a post-industrial society. FOOD
CLOTHING
DWELLING PLACE
TRANSPORTATION
EDUCATION A COMMUNITY must provide mechanism for the transmission of existing knowledge, social values, and dominant patterns of behavior to the members.
FAMILY
PEER GROUPS
WORK GROUPS
SCHOOL
CHURCH A COMMUNITY must regulate and control their its' members behavior. POLICE
COURTS
CHURCH MEMBERS of a COMMUNITY learn to interact with other members spontaneously, starting from the family to a much bigger group The COMMUNITY is always expected to provide relief and solutions to the members' problems. Forms of assistance usually come from family members and kin, neighbors, social and welfare agencies and social, civic, religious groups The community as a territorial unit has both personal and shared meanings for the inhabitants. This sense of sharing a commonh area that may have a specific name and a unique identity is the territorial aspect of the community Basic properties of a social group socialization of members
social control of the residents
mutual support among residents A collection of small subsystems perform various community functions: Family
Schools
Churches
Policitical and Civic organizations It is said that people gain a sense of security when they are identified with their community. This identifications consists of common values, norms and goals.
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