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of Persuasive Writing
Transcript of of Persuasive Writing
What is the point or role of an introduction?
-The introductory paragraph sets the tone and direction for the entire essay.
What do you need in your essay?
How Can You Persuade?
-The purpose of the body is to CONVINCE the reader to agree with writer and to prove the thesis.
The Steps to Writing a Successful Persuasive Essay
Persuade (v): Cause someone to do or think something through reasoning, emotions or argument.
The art of persuasion can be seen anywhere.....
There are 3 parts to an introductory paragraph:
1. Hook or Attention Getter
2. Introduce Topic Briefly
3. Thesis Statement
Hook or Attention Getter:
Hooks the readers attention.
Introduce Topic Briefly:
Explain the issue briefly
-Evidence can be in the form of facts, examples, details, explanation, personal experience concerning the issue.
-Use analogies (similar situations that relate the the issue)
* Here are some great ways to start an explanation (supporting details):
- "For Instance,..." "One can see,..." "Presently, . . ."
"To be specific, . . ."
Use a transitional phrase, such as:
-"unquestionably", "to be sure", "as one can see"
Connect thoughts/rephrase the topic sentence.
1. This type of argument opposes your thesis.
2. It expresses the view of a person who disagrees with your position.
1. A counter argument shows that you have considered all aspects of the issue......It's a sign of respect
2. The counter argument should be in the 3rd body
1. In order to show your 'mad skills' of persuasion, you must refute the counter argument.
2. This means you must prove that the C.A. is incorrect.
Counter Argument Phrase
1. The counter argument and rebuttal would be considered a topic sentence:
One might argue that.........................however,
1. Transition-reflection/,restate thesis .
2. Summarize main points
3. Insightful Closing-(thought, not a fact, not a question.
the use of detailed descriptions to paint a picture in the reader's mind
Use these techniques to persuade your audience!
Example: “Emaciated refugees construct makeshift shelters out of branches and scraps of plastic. All around them, vicious winds whip up choking clouds of red dust. On the parched earth where it has barely rained for two years, the carcasses of dead animals lie everywhere: dried-out pastures have become the graveyards of this drought.“
The best way to use visual imagery is when you want to elicit an emotional response about the subject.
I have a dream
that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream
that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering
with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be
transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream
that my four little children will one day
live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color
of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream
~Example from Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Speech
the use of the same words or phrases over and over again
The impression that everyone else is doing something, or the feeling of being left out of something if you don’t join in.
Recently, President Obama said the following during his speech on creating jobs in America:
“Building a world-class transportation system is part of what made us an economic superpower. And now we're going to sit back and watch
China build newer airports and faster railroads
? At a time when millions of unemployed construction workers could build them right here in America?”
Who wants to be left out of being
Language that evokes a certain emotion in the audience that could sway the audience’s opinion about a specific topic.
“ In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final
of our course. Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its
graves of young Americans
who answered the call to service surround the globe.”
-JFK’s Inaugural Address in 1961
“On July 18th of this year John Cochran was found dead. The radio of his car was still playing when the paramedics got to his overturned vehicle. John's neck was broken. It was snapped when his car flipped over an embankment. No one here knows John Cochran because he did not live here, but he died in our neighborhood. Most of you do know of the hairpin turn on Route 857 that has been the scene of eleven accidents this year alone and has injured many friends as well as strangers. We need money to put up guardrails, signs, and a flashing light. I know money is tight, but I hope you see fit to find the funds to remedy this situation before the unknown John Cochran becomes one of your loved ones.”
Example Two: With Emotional Language
“Elephant populations dropped from 1.3 million to 500,000 in Africa because of a heavy demand, mainly from Japan, for the tusks that are carved into jewelry, signature seals and other mementos.”
“At the present rates of extinction, as many as 20% of the world's 7-15 million species could be gone in the next 30 years.” (WWF)
Facts and statistics are true statements that validate the author’s
opinion, persuading the audience to trust what the author is saying.
Facts & Statistics
Language used for descriptive effect, often to imply ideas indirectly
"As the cave's roof collapsed, he was swallowed up in the dust like
, and only his frantic scrabbling behind a wall of rock indicated that there was anyone still alive".
The allusion in the sentence above is to a story from the bible about Jonah and the whale. The reader is expected to recognize the reference to Jonah and the whale, which should evoke an image of being 'swallowed alive' ... in this case, behind a wall of dust and rock.
"Christy didn't like to spend money. She was no
, but she seldom purchased anything except the bare necessities."
Did you spot the allusion to Scrooge? That name should bring to mind an image of someone who 'pinches pennies' and hoards money with a passion. But the allusion only works if the reader is familiar with Charles Dickens' story 'A Christmas Carol‘ or the Disney movie version
A reference in a literary work to a well-known character, place, or situation from another work of literature, music, artwork, or from history.
Using Emotional Language
In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. . . Instead of honoring this sacred obligation,
America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds."
But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we've come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice.
~From Martin Luther King, Jr.’s
“I Have a Dream” Speech
Many allusions refer to the bible, mythology, nursery rhymes, famous fictional or historical characters /events or classic literature (Shakespeare).
Read the prompt below. Use what you’ve learned about persuasive writing to develop a thesis.
1. Many young people do not seem to see the importance in finding summer employment or working occasional hours at an after school job. Persuade young people whether or not to pursue early employment opportunities.
*Think: How can you state your thesis in a concise way so it is clear to your readers how you want them to feel about the issue?
2. People have recently debated about the possibility of raising taxes on foods that are unhealthy, such as sugary sodas. Persuade others to take a particular position on this issue.
*Think: In your thesis, don’t be afraid to take a strong stance on an issue.
Ways to Persuade
When you are done there should be NO doubt what you think is the right choice. Don't try to write for both sides!!
Be careful when using emotional language:
It may alienate your audience.
It may communicate a different meaning than you intended.
Remember word connotation isn't the same for everyone; choose your words wisely and thoughtfully.
Do not make up statistics on the EOC!!!! Use facts from your life, if they apply.
This is an analogy!!
The other side of the argument
shows you understand other points of view
gives respect to the other side of the argument
allows you to directly argue against the other side which strengthens your arguments.
How to introduce
"Some may argue... however,...
"It is widely believed that... however,...
Others think that... however,...
Comment on hook;
in your own words
State Claim/Position (answer the question)
Give topics for paragraphs
[LAST SENTENCE of introduction]
Introduce main idea of paragraph (reason)
4.Interpret / Comment:
Explain how evidence supports topic sentence/reason