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Sense of Taste

Anatomy and Physiology of Taste
by

Carly Vanderheyden

on 30 October 2012

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Transcript of Sense of Taste

Carly Vanderheyden SENSE OF TASTE IB Psychology Period 5A Mammal taste receptors are found in their mouths! Not all living things are the same... Interesting Facts about Taste Tongue contains taste buds: The Tongue: Sense Organ for Taste Five Primary Tastes Three types of nerves involved in transmitting taste information to the brain: Pathway to the Brain * Ability to taste and enjoy certain foods helps determine when the necessary amounts of useful nutrients have been consumed

* During the course of evolution, certain types of tastes became associated with substances that are good and substances that are bad.

> Generally salty, sweet and umami are pleasant tastes
- Foods with these tastes were good for our evolutionary ancestors based on their nutrition and the environment they lived in
- Sugars gave the best source of energy for our evolutionary ancestors
- Protein was and still is essential for our tissue's growth and repair

> Generally sour and bitter are unpleasant tastes
- Over time, natural selection has assoiciated these tastes with foods and substances that are bad for us
^ Human system for taste experiences most acids as sour & unpleasant
- Some plants & animals have substances within them that can harm or kill animals that eat them and taste the bitter toxins in their inner tissues

(Gray 244)
reference for entire slide Evolutionary Psychology of Quality of Taste Sensitivity to Bitterness * Sensation of tastes often decreases after age 60
> Sweet and salty tastes are often lost before bitter and sour tastes

* Tastes can be distorted, temporarily lost or even completely lost (rare)

* Problems with the sense of taste can be caused by anything that may interrupt the transmitting of taste sensations to the brain, or even problems that may interrupt how the brain interprets these sensations
> Common cold or the flu
> Nasal infection
> Strep throat
> Injury to mouth, nose or head
> Ear surgury
> Smoking
> Certain medicines and cancer drugs Taste Impairment * The sensation of tasting flavors is actually a combination of both smelling and tasting

> Taste can be very limited without use of the nose

> Without involving the sense of smell with taste, only the five primary tastes can be experienced

> Complex flavors cannot be fully experienced without the nose

> As food is chewed, air is forced through the nose; the smell of the food is forced through, too Impact of Smell and Taste http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/pdf/tastetg.pdf Activity:
TEST YOUR TASTE! Works Cited Insects...found on their feet!
Fish...found all over their bodies! Humans have 10,000 taste buds on their tongues and the roofs of their mouths! Taste buds help us determine what tastes good! Taste is often considered the weakest sense! Females have more taste buds than males! People taste things differently! Everyone's tastes change as they grow older! * Spherical structures containing 50-100 taste receptor cells
> Taste receptor cells respond to physical stimuli of food molecules being dissolved by saliva on the tongue
> Taste receptor cells produce electrical changes that may cause neural impulses in sensory neurons (Gray 243)

* 2/3 found on the surface tissue of the tongue (Gray 243); the rest found on the roof of the mouth and near the opening of the throat (Baker)

* Most people have 2,000-10,000 taste buds
> The more taste buds a person has, the more sensitive that person is to tastes of foods (Gray 243) (1)
Saliva dissolves the food into a solution

(2)
Solution comes into contact with the sensitive ends of the taste receptor cells (taste buds) on the tongue

(3)
Solution triggers electrical changes that result in action of the taste receptor cells on the tongue and sensory neurons that run to the brain

(4)
Brain determines how to interpret the taste of what was eaten

(Gray 243) Transduction in Taste http://www.riversideonline.com/source/images/slideshow/de22_tonguetaste.jpg IMAGES: http://www.wcrf-uk.org/research/types_ of_cancer/mouth_throat_cancer.php HOW ARE FOODS TASTED? Transduction is the process by which taste receptor cells on the tongue respond to the food molecules dissolved there by saliva (Gray 234). SWEET SALTY BITTER UMAMI SOUR Primary tastes are named after the taste sensation that occurs when the specific type of taste receptor cell is active (Gray 243).

Specific methods of transduction differ for each of the primary types of taste receptor cells (Gray 243). Believed that all tastes could be understood by combinations of these four primary tastes (Boroditsky). Unique taste that cannot be described as a combination of any of the other four primary tastes; means "savory" or "delicious" (Gray 243). http://www.zecuppa.com/coffeeterms-cupping-tasting.htm Each of the primary tastes has specific types of taste receptor cells that are located in areas of greatest sensitivity on different parts of the tongue (Gray 243; Boroditsky). CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE
Responsible for transmitting signals from the front and sides of the tongue

GLOSSO-PHARYNGEAL NERVE
Responsible for transmitting signals from the back of the tongue

VAGUS NERVE
Responsible for transmitting signals from the roof of the mouth and the throat

(Boroditsky) Each sense in the human body has a unique primary sensory area located in the cerebral cortex. Information Must be Processed by the Brain The primary taste area is found in the portion of the cerebral cortex called the INSULA. The insula is buried in the fold of the brain between the parietal and temporal lobe. INFORMATION: http://www.pc.rhul.ac.uk/staff/J.Zanker/PS1061/L9/PS1061_9.htm. Relationship between bitter tastes and poisons Evolution: Ability to Taste Toxic Substances as Bitter * Variety of chemical substances taste bitter because they can all bind to at least one of the many bitter taste receptor sites

> Binding of the chemical substance to the bitter taste receptor sites triggers a chemical change in the taste receptor cell

> Chemical change causes sensory neurons to send information to brain --> bitter taste sensation

* There are many different types of receptor sites on bitter taste receptor cells

> If an animal eats a poisonous substance, mutations may occur that cause the individual to dislike the taste, and the individual survival and reproduction would be promoted
- The new genes that reject this poisonous substance would increase through each generation
- Individuals with the new gene taste the poisonous substance as being bitter and would avoid it

> If an animal eats a different poisonous substance, the would not avoid it as they avoided the first substance; this is because the animal has no sensory grounds for avoiding it
- Mutation may occur and the individual will experience the new poisonous substance as

> With both the first and second poisonous substance, the animal would experience the same bitter taste

* There is evidence that natural selection may have produced mammals with many types of bitter taste receptor sites that the molecules of most toxins in plants and other foods are able to bind to

(Gray 245)
reference for entire slide * Bitter tastes cannot be completely avoided
> Plants protect themselves by producing both posionous and nonposionous substances
- Nonposionous substances are similar to poisons; they bind to same taste receptor sites to promote bitter taste sensation
> Individuals who avoid all bitter tasting plants lose the nutritional value of those plants that are nonposionous > May explain why children do not like eating foods like spinach
> Extra sensitivity may help prevent children from eating poisonous substances during development before they learn what is and is not safe to consume * Young children are very sensitive to bitterness * Women are generally more sensitive to bitterness than men
> Women become most sensitive during the first three months of pregnancy to prevent fetal damage from posions http://www.flickr.com/photos/clintjcl/200481513/ http://plantsandpeople-joanna.blogspot.com/2012/02/week-5-omnivores-dilemma.html Materials: * Apple Purpose: * To determine how well food can be tasted and identified while plugging nose and not using the sense of smell compared to while not restricting the sense of smell. Procedure: * Firm Melon * Onion * Blindfold the person whose sense of tase will be tested.
* Have the person taste the six foods while plugging their nose and not looking at what the food is that they are eating
* The person should record in order what they believe the food is that they ate
* After the person tastes the six foods while plugging their nose, have the person remain blindfolded and taste the same six foods again in a different order without plugging their nose
* Once again, the person should record what they believe the food is that they ate Conclusion: * How does the sense of taste differ between eating with a plugged nose and eating without a plugged nose? How much does the nose truly contribute to the sense of taste? * Potato * Firm Pear * Sweet Potato [Untitled image of brain – slide 7]. Retrieved September 23, 2012, from:
http://www.pc.rhul.ac.uk/staff/J.Zanker/PS1061/L9/PS1061_9.htm.

[Untitled image of open mouth – slide 2]. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from:
http://www.riversideonline.com/health_reference/Dental-Care/DE00009.cfm?RenderForPrint=1.

[Untitled image of open mouth – slide 3]. Retrieved September 22, 2012, from:
http://www.wcrf-uk.org/research/types_of_cancer/mouth_throat_cancer.php.

[Untitled image of senses - slide 11]. Retrieved September 23, 2012, from: http://coastalclc.ning.com/profiles/blog/list?user=0u2b35k26lkhp

[Untitled image of spinach – slide 10]. Retrieved September 23, 2012, from:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/clintjcl/200481513/

[Untitled image of tongue and location of taste buds – slide 5]. Retrieved September 23, 2012, from:
http://www.zecuppa.com/coffeeterms-cupping-tasting.htm. Baker , M. (2008, August 5). Livescience. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/2737-surprising-impact-taste-
smell.html

Boroditsky, L. (1999, 27 07). http://www-psych.stanford.edu/~lera/psych115s/notes/lecture11/. Retrieved from http://www-
psych.stanford.edu/~lera/psych115s/notes/lecture11/

Gray, P. (2011). Psychology. (6th ed., pp. 232-246). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

Kimball, J. (2011, September 14). Properties of the taste system. Retrieved from
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/T/Taste.html

Marks, M. (2011, November 15). Think quest. Retrieved from http://library.thinkquest.org/3750/taste/taste.html

Neuroscience for kids. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/pdf/tastetg.pdf

Vorick, L. J. (2011, March 05). Medline plus. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003050.htm Problems with Sense of Taste http://coastalclc.ning.com/profiles/blog/list?user=0u2b35k26lkhp (Baker)
reference for entire slide (Gray 244)
reference for entire slide (Gray 245)
reference for entire slide (Vorick)
reference for entire slide (Koerth-Baker)
reference for entire slide
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