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Autopsy: Americas

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Rose L.

on 14 May 2017

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Transcript of Autopsy: Americas

"Lady Yohl Ik'nal." Mesoweb, mesoweb.com/encyc/
index.asp?passcall=rightframeexact&rightframeexact=http%3A//mesoweb.com/encyc/
view.asp%3Fact%3Dviewexact%26view%3Dnormal%26word%3DIknal%26wordAND%3DLady+Yohl.
Accessed 9 Oct. 2016.

Mexicolore.co.uk, and Claudia Brittenham. Quetzal feather headress. Digital image. Mexicolore.co.uk. Museum of Ethnology, n.d. Web.

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Minster, Christopher. "What Was Ancient Mayan Architecture Like?" About.com Education. About Education, 21 Aug. 2016. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.

"Outline." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, ABC-CLIO, 2016, ancienthistory.abc-clio.com/Topics/Display/1185596?cid=142&sid=1913368. Accessed 13 Oct. 2016.

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"Teotihuacan." Mexican History, mexicanhistory.org/Teotihuacan.htm. Accessed 9 Oct. 2016.

Tignor, Robert L. "Mesoamericans." Worlds Together, Worlds Apart: A History of the World from the Beginnings of Humankind to the Present. 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2011. 314. Print.

Smith, Micheal E. Apartment compound. Digital image. Http://wideurbanworld.blogspot.com/. N.p., 27 Mar. 2013. Web. <http://wideurbanworld.blogspot.com/2013/03/teotihuacan-ancient-mesoamerican.html>.


The Americas
Laurenn Lee, Nathalie Guerrero, Rose McCullough, Rose Li
Head: Significant Leaders &
Accomplishments
Heart: Religious Beliefs
Ribs: Societal Infrastructure
Face: Literature
Spine: Political Structure
Hands: Art, Architecture & Technological Advances
Legs: Labor Systems
Feet: Trade Routes & Goods Traded
PART I: Empire Obituary
PART II: Autopsy
What Led to the Demise of the Mayan Empire?
Works Cited:
Mayan rulers:
K'inich Janaab' Pakal
ruled for 70 years
conducted several building projects in Palenque
ascended the throne at the age of 12
Lady Yohl Ik'nal
carried a full royal title
ruled for 21 years
Yax K'uk Mo'
built the Mayan city of Copan
Teotihuacan rulers:
all Teotihuacan rulers are anonymous
K'inich Janaab' Pakal
Yax K'uk Mo'
Mayan Literature:
hieroglyphic writing system
wrote books called codices
written on bark paper
only three or four codices remain
Popol Vuh (Tignor 316)
the story of creation
Teotihuacan Literature:
used iconography instead of textual writing systems
mural art displays icon glyphs
Teotihuacan iconography
What Led to the Demise of Teotihuacan?
BC, By 5000. "Ancient History." Ancient History. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.

By the Time the Aztec Empire Was at Its Height, This Great City Had Been around for over 1600 Years. "Teotihuacan." Teotihuacan. Aztec - History.com, 2016. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.
http://www.aztec-history.com/teotihuacan.html

Cartwright, Mark. "Maya Writing." Ancient History Encyclopedia, 12 Feb. 2014,
www.ancient.eu/article/655/. Accessed 9 Oct. 2016.

Cartwright, Mark. "The Classic Maya Collapse." Ancient History Encyclopedia, 18
Oct. 2014, www.ancient.eu/article/759/. Accessed 10 Oct. 2016.

Cartwright, Mark. "Teotihuacan." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 17 Feb. 2015. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.

Gomez, Maria C. "Maya Government." Ancient History Encyclopedia, 1 May 2013,
www.ancient.eu/Maya_Government/. Accessed 9 Oct. 2016.

Hanson, Richard. "Maya Trade and Economy." Maya Trade and Economy. N.p., 28 Jan. 2008. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.

History.com Staff. "Maya." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.
<http://www.history.com/topics/maya>.

History.com Staff. "Mayan Scientific Achievements." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2010. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.

Hutchinson, Jennifer. "Teotihuacán." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, ABC-CLIO, 2016, ancienthistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/1258768. Accessed 13 Oct. 2016.


Teotihuacan
Mayan
Traded Prestige and Subsistence goods
Prestige:
obsidian, jade, cacao,
pelts, Quetzel feathers,
pottery
Subsistence:
textiles, salt, crops, stone, ceramics
Trade Routes connected North and South America
transportation modes only foot or canoe
Tikal

- major Mayan hub
Trade:
obsidian, ceramics, ornaments, shells, figurines, textiles, crops, cotton, salt, cacao, feathers
Trade Routes were throughout Mesoamerica

Maya

Teotihuacan
Mayan Architecture:
Most made of limestone using stone tools & large amount of human labor
Observatories, temples, ball courts, step pyramids
Palaces: built for kings, nobility
majority of urban architecture
Art
paintings; some survived
pottery
Technological Advances (Tignor 316)
Writing
Astronomy
Calendars



Mayan Religion
Worshiped natural gods
Human sacrifices were annual rituals done to please the gods
Current day practices consist of traditional culture mixed with Catholicism
Built great religious pyramids
religion based calendars
Teotihuacan Religion
Goddesses of nature were the main religious figures
Murals and sculptures were made to represent gods and goddesses
Two main religious temples (Tignor 313)
Pyramid of the sun
Pyramid of the moon
Followed an indigenous form of religion until converted to Christianity by the Spanish
Mayan Politics
Lived in city-states
Kingship began around 300 B.C.
Had a four tiered Hierarchy system
Great political palaces were made for the ruling class
Never unified city states, but still traded with one another
Rulers were groomed since birth to rule (Tignor 315)
Kings were seen as god like figures
Teotihuacan Politics
Advanced draining and water supply systems
Political similarities to the Mayans
Unlike the Mayans, the Teotihuacan people merged city states
One of the largest, most complex and populated civilizations in Mesoamerica at the time
Teotihuacan Architecture:
Talud- tablero design
Pyramids, plazas, palaces, temples
Pyramids of the Sun & Moon
Ciudadela (Citadel) (Tignor 313)
Palace of Quetzalcoatl
Apartment complexes


Art
Ceramics
Mural decorations
Motifs: jaguars & butterflies
Technological Advances
Grid layout
Irrigation system
Teotihuacan
Maya
Priest-Rulers
governed city
staged grand religious pageants
Craftsmen
specialized in ceramics, obsidian and stone working, metallurgy & more
Merchants
traded ceramics and decorative objects
Farmers
around 2/3 of population
City- production of goods
rest of population
relationship with family members declined (Mayan city-states)
increase in armed conflicts
Broken foot (decrease in trade)
dehydration (drought throughout the empire)
caused a shortage of water
led to repeated crop failures
Kings ("kuhul ajaw")
performed religious ceremonies and rituals
Lords
performed ritual blood sacrifices
Warriors
protected and fought for city
Farmers
large population
Slaves
Suddenly passed away in 600 BCE
burns on hands (burning and looting of cities)
Other possible causes of death:
Decline in relationships with family members (civil wars) (Tignor 312)
foreign substances entering body (invasion)
Fractured ribs (uprisings, breakdown in society)
amputation of feet (ceased trade caused lack of resources)
dehydration and peeling skin (drought and soil erosion)


Central Plaza - city center surrounded by temples, palaces, ball courts, housing,

Temples & Pyramids - place of religious practices and tombs

Palaces - home of royal family, community center, admin. center

Ball Courts - game called "Pitz" was played


Great Compound - marketplace
Compounds included:
courtyards
cooking areas
independent water supplies
family burial spaces
workshops
local temples
residences
Pyramids of the Moon and Sun &
Temple of Quetzalcoatl - main religious structures




Quetzal feather Headress -
Teotihuacan compound
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