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Transcript of Mughal Empire
Christian Geography The Mughal Empire's geography was
affected mainly by the empire being so
closely connected to the Sea Roads
for trade, and also being ruled by a
Hindu emperor named Akbar in an
Islamic nation Political The Mughal Empire was
first founded in 1526 and was
ruled by the emperor Babur.
Since his ruling there were two more
major emperors. These were Akbar
the Great and Shah Jahan,
who ruled the empire until their fall in 1748 Political Continued The Mughals mainly ran their empire more like a military. Every citizen was expected to be a soldier in the army.
In 1530, emperor Babur died at the age of 47
The culture of the Mughals flourished under Babur's rule just like when the empire was run by his grandfather, Babar. While these two rulers had a big interest in gardening, the peak of Mughal Painting was reached in Jahangir's rule. Economics Agriculture remained an important part of the Mughal economy, but the crops and the techniques remained unchanged. Irrigation was not present, but some areas did have access to canals and some sort of fresh water. The textile industry was booming because of the high demand for cotton and silk. The negative thing about the Mughals is that they never developed their skills in agriculture which had devastating results. Economics Continued The Mughals niche on the Sea Roads was trading cotton cloth, textiles, spices, opium, and indigo.
Mughals money developed with the return of a stable power. Exchangeable coins were issued in gold, silver, and copper. These coins were of good quality and often had interesting designs. The important matter was that the money was now seen as a reliable method of exchange. The Mughal coin was now a prideful unit of value. Religion The leader was Hindu
but he created a religious
tolerance, unifying India. People were mostly
Islamic Because of the two religions there was a clear void in the empire due to the large differences in the beliefs of the people. Social The society of the Mughal empire can be categorized as the rich, middle and poor classes. The difference between the richest sections of society and the poorest was very wide At the top of the social and economic ladder was the king and his nobles. This class lived in luxury with many resources at their disposal. They lived a life of reckless celebration, large banquets, beautiful homes and often had big egos. Their food and wardrobe were expensive, and their homes were huge residential structures. The middle class was a new development that would grow and become an important force during British India. They were usually merchants, industrialists and various other professionals. While not being able to afford the profligacy of the rich class, they lived comfortable and more reasonable lives. Many middle class families were also very well off and were able to cater in some luxuries Below the middle class lay the poor class, the most burdened and neglected part of the society. There was a major difference between their standard of living and that of the two above classes. They were usually without satisfactory clothing and in cases of famines even without food. They held very low paying jobs, where they were expected to put in long hours. Their condition can perhaps be described as voluntary slaves. They were often harassed by the officers of the king, who extorted money out of them by making false charges against them. The economic conditions of the peasants continuously declined, especially towards the close of the Mughal period when the one-man rule of the administrative district governors constantly troubled the peasants' lives. The Mughal emperors were penetrating patrons of education, and there was considerable development in this area. In fact one of the duties of the public works department, Shuhra-I-Am was to build schools and colleges. Jahangir passed a law, whereby if a rich man was to die without an heir, his possessions would be used by the State to help in the development and maintenance of educational institutes. Shah Jahan although more interested in building monuments, did take some significant educational enterprises like providing scholarships to assist students. Female education also existed in some form during the Mughal period. Girls from rich families were usually able to have an education, through private tuitions at home. The Middle class girls were usually able to attend the same schools as the boys. Intellectual Art and Architecture was major to the Mughals. The certainty of the Sultanate period was over, and the new ideas from that period had been successfully absorbed. Now under the approval of the powerful Mughal emperors, great works in art and architecture began in all parts of the empire. Painting made some significant advances during the Mughal period. Painting was a popular expression of art during the Mughal period, and in fact a Mughal school of painting developed during the time, since the Mughal period had a distinctive style. The finest painting of the Mughal period are the “Padshanamth” and the 'Khandan-i-Timura”. The Mughal paintings often covered scenes from the court and help our understanding of how the court functioned. These paintings also provide us with information on what the emperors and what their nobles looked like. All the greater Mughal emperors were great builders, even Babur in his short reign was able to put up a few monuments. The only exception was Aurangzeb whose puritan approach to life, did not support self-indulgence like building fine buildings. Therefore architectural work in his time is almost absent, with the few monuments pale shadows of the greatness achieved by the earlier emperors. Shah Jehan was the most prolific Mughal builder, and built some of its greatest structures, the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal. Artistic Artistic There was fantastic literary activity during the Mughal period, because with the return of a stable and well-fixed empire, there was once again patronage for their work. Languages like Persian, Sanskrit, Hindi and Urdu saw marvelous creative activity as did many vulgar languages. Persian literature received a lot of attention as it was the court language. A large number of works were written during the period of the Mughals. Generally one can divide them into three categories, historical works, translations ,poetry and novels. Our understanding of the Mughal period was greatly enhanced by these books, and most of the historical works of this period provide us with a fairly reliable source of information. The Mughal empire had a large number of poets and writers and therefore there was a lot of work published in this era. Especially during the time period of Akbar, Jehangir and Shah Jahan they had large patronage and many extraordinary works were composed.