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all my Chemistry revision of Autumn Term 2 xxx

Abi Carr

on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of Chemistry

Chemistry Revision Topics of Autumn term2 2012 Abi Carr Atomic Structure
& Isotopes Ionic Bonding My Chemistry Revision Simple Molecular
Bonding: Covalent When an Atom does not have a full outer
shell it is unstable and needs to fill its outer
shell by sharing electrons with another atom by linking together creating stability for both atoms. An Isotope is an element with
more or less neutrons than the
original element. It has the same
Atomic Number yet a different
Mass number due to the
Neutron numbers changing. Ionic Bonding is when one atom has the
number of electrons that do not add up to a
full outer shell and another needs more to create a full outer shell, the first atom will
give electrons (negatively charged) to the
other atom making the first positive 9as it
has lost negativity) and the second negative (as it has gained a negative electron). They then are attracted to each other and bond due to there positivity and negativity. Metallic Bonding Compounds Giant covalent bonding occurs in very strong materials such as diamond when each atom is bonded to another atom with no loose ends to create a stronger material. They have high melting points. Compounds are formed when
atoms of two or more elements are chemically combined together. for example, Carbon Dioxide is a compound formed from a chemical reaction between Carbon and Oxygen. Its very difficult to separate the two original elements out again. Due: Tues 6th Nov Atoms consist of electrons surrounding a
nucleus that contains protons and neutrons.Neutrons are neutral, but protons and electrons are electrically charged. Protons have a relative charge of +1, while electrons have a relative
charge of -1.The number of protons in an atom is called its atomic number. In the periodic table atoms are arranged in atomic number order. Due: Tues 6th Nov Due: Tues 6th Nov Carbon Oxygen Carbon Dioxide C O O C O O CO2 Due: Tues 6th Nov Giant Covalent
bonding Diamond Metals form giant structures in which electrons in the outer shells of the metal atoms are free to move. The metallic bond is the force of attraction between these free electrons and metal ions. Metallic bonds are strong, so metals can maintain a regular structure and usually have high melting and boiling points. Due: Tues 6th Nov Due: Tues 6th Nov Giant Covalent
and Metallic Bonding New Materials and
Polymers A polymer is a chemical compound formed from long chains of the same molecule group. These chains repeat over and over. Smart Materials behave differently depending on conditions e.g. Temperature Nitinol is an alloy when it is cold you can bend and twist it like rubber but when heated it goes back to a remembered
shape. Giant Covalent bonding is
similar to giant ionic bonding except there are no charged ions all the atoms are bonded to each other by strong covalent bonds giving them high melting and boiling points. Metallic bonding is when all the metallic protons are forced together by the de-localised electrons connecting to each proton forcing them together. Chemical
Analysis Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a method that combines the features of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample. Paper chromatography is an analytical method technique for separating and identifying mixtures that are or can be colored, especially pigments. This can
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