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Science Group Reporting

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Paulette Louise

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of Science Group Reporting

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Science Group Reporting
Land pollution is the degradation of the Earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and its misuse. Due to land pollution, the Earth loses approximately 25 billion tons of valuable topsoil each year.

Water Pollution
Water pollution is the introduction into fresh or ocean waters of chemical, physical, or biological material that degrades the quality of the water and affects the organisms living in it. This process ranges from simple addition of dissolved or suspended solids to discharge of the most insidious and persistent toxic pollutants (such as pesticides, heavy metals, and nondegradable, bioaccumulative, chemical compounds).
Conserving Natural Resources
Group 4
> Paulette Caoile
> Gian Rojo
> Nathaniel Balaba
> Justin Mercado

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants.
Pollution is everywhere. Nowadays, with the industrialization of society, the introduction of motorized vehicles, and the growing human population, has caused an exponential growth in goods and services.The indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial and domestic wastes into waterways, the spewing of thousands of tons of particulates and airborne gases into the atmosphere, the "throwaway" attitude toward solid wastes, and the use of newly developed chemicals without considering potential consequences have resulted in major environmental disasters.
Pollution is destructive and bad for the environment
Land Pollution
Abusive Soil Use
Soil is a renewable resource but the process of soil formation can take a long period of time. Therefore, it is important to prevent the wastage of soil.
QUESTION: One major cause of soil loss is?
QUESTION: Give several scenarios that leads to land pollution.
Haphazard Dumping of Solid Waste
The solid wastes sent by households, businesses and municipalities to our dumps and landfills can reach around to an 150 million metric tons. Additional solid wastes accumulate from mining, industrial production, and agriculture. The accumulations of other types of wastes are far greater, in many instances are more difficult to dispose of, and present greater environmental hazards.

Landfills filled with improperly disposed solid waste
What is water?
Water is an important resource. It is a colourless, tasteless, and odourless substance that is essential to all forms of life that we know of.

There is a lot of water on our planet, and it exists in many places and forms: mostly in oceans and polar ice caps, but also as clouds, rain water, rivers or freshwaters. Water is continuously moving through the cycle of evaporation, precipitation, and runoff, back to the sea.
All known forms of life need water. Humans consume "drinking water" - water which has qualities compatible with the human body. Ordinary rain water in many countries is polluted and therefore not safe to drink. This natural resource has become scarce with the growing world population, and its availability is a major social and economic concern.
Water pollution is very bad for our health
Water is a very important resource of life
Soil Conservation
Soil is neccessary and important to us all. Here are several techniques in soil conservation:
Crop rotation
is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar/different types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons.is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar/different types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons.

is the farming practice of ploughing and/or planting across a slope following its elevation contour lines. These contour lines create a water break which reduces the formation of rills and gullies during times of heavy water run-off; which is a major cause of top soil loss and soil erosion. The water break also allows more time for the water to settle into the soil.
is used on the sides of hills. Terracing prevents surface water running down the hill, carrying the soil with it.
Contour farming
Strip cropping; no exposed soil is left to erosion since cover crops are planted in between the rows of crops
Natural resources are materials found in the environment that are used by humans either for life processes or cultural activities. Natural resources are derived from the environment. Some of them are essential for our survival while most are used for satisfying our wants. Natural resources may be further classified in different ways.
Conserving Forests
Forests, supply a wide variety of human use, from food to wood to building materials. This is a renewable natural resource but its conservation is essential to the environment.
QUESTION: What do you call the study of trees?
One way of preserving forests is
is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been depleted, usually through deforestation. Reforestation can be used to improve the quality of human life by soaking up pollution and dust from the air, rebuild natural habitats and ecosystems, mitigate global warming since forests facilitate biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and harvest for resources, particularly timber.
Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource to protect the water environment and to meet current and future human demand. Population, household size and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used. Factors such as climate change will increase pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing and agricultural irrigation.
Water Conservation
Conservation VS Preservation
Conservation is the sustainable use of natural resources. Our natural resources include wildlife, air, water and what we get from earth. Some of our natural resources are renewable, while others, unfortunately, are not. Some examples of renewable resources are water, timber and sunlight. Conservation of renewable natural resources means the consumption of these at a rate slower than their replacement rate. Non-renewable natural resources like our fossil fuels can be conserved by maintaining a sufficient amount to be utilized by future generations. The focus of natural resources conservation is on the needs and interests of people. These needs may fall under biological, cultural, recreational and economic needs.
Preservation, on the other hand, means maintaining the present state of something. Preservation of natural resources is mainly focused on resources that have not been touched by humans. The main concern for preserving some resources is that mankind has been excessively using these resources for housing, farming, industry, tourism and other human developments and has damaged the natural beauty.
The words conservation and preservation may appear to mean the same thing but are actually different in some ways. These are terms commonly used by people who are trying to protect the environment, and are often confused. Although both groups have similar frameworks, tools and methods, conservation and preservation differ in their main ideologies.
1. What are the three R's?
2.Give an example of a renewable resource.
3. The major cause of soil loss is _____?
4. Give three kinds of pollution.
5. Give two uses of water.
6. What is pollution?
7. What is strip cropping?
8. What is a renewable resource?
9. Fossil fuel is an example of a ________?
10. Terracing prevents ________?
11. At least how many years does it take for 2.5 cm of topsoil to regenerate?

> It takes at least 500 years for 2.5 centimeters of topsoil to regenerate.
> Much land pollution is caused by agricultural activities, like grazing, pesticide spraying, fertilizing, irrigation, confined animal facilities and plowing.
> Excessive irrigation impacts water and soil quality by concentrating pesticides and harmful bacteria in the top layers of soil.
> Land-based pollution has threatened 22 percent of the Earth’s coral reefs.
> Up to 80 percent of land pollution is caused by energy production, food production and transportation.
> In 2009, more than 20,000 beaches were closed as a result of land pollution.

or try to save the Earth, little by little, and make it a better place? What would you choose?
Do we just stand back and do nothing while watching our planet get destroyed,
A renewable resource is a natural resource that can replaced through biological or other natural processes and replenished after some time
Renewable Resources
A resource of economic value that cannot be readily replaced by natural means on a level equal to its consumption. Most fossil fuels, such as oil, natural gas and coal are considered nonrenewable resources in that their use is not sustainable because their formation takes billions of years.

Nonrenewable resources
Solar energy is a renewable resource
Ways to conserve water
1. Never throw water away. If you pour too much out or have some left in your glass, use it. Pour the surplus into your dog’s water dish, water a plant, or add it to your water kettle.

2. Don’t leave the tap running needlessly. If you are washing your face and you need to get the tap warm, use that initial cooler water to brush your teeth, and then wash your face.

3. Choose and use your appliances wisely. Use energy star appliances whenever possible and always use them at full capacity. Choose economy settings and don’t run the dishwasher half-full.

4. Stop that leaky toilet. Not only does it sound annoying, it wastes loads of water. Leaks can often be fixed by making minor adjustments.

5. Check faucets and pipes for leaks
A small drip from a worn faucet washer can waste 20 gallons of water per day. Larger leaks can waste hundreds of gallons.

6. Don't use the toilet as an ashtray or wastebasket
Every time you flush a cigarette butt, facial tissue or other small bit of trash, five to seven gallons of water is wasted
Land Conversion is the process whereby a piece of land is converted from its indigenous form, to one that is used for either agriculture or infrastructure. Land conversion is especially a growing problem that we possibly do not have a good - or a good enough - solution for. The best way to avoid land conversion is to make efficient use of available land. Using a piece of land to its maximum potential is the key to eliminating many of the causes of land pollution
Land Conversion
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