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Chinese Civil War
Transcript of Chinese Civil War
-However, the central government, unable to maintain effective control over the country, was helpless to stop the countless warlords that dominated the country’s vast territory.
-To defeat these warlords the Kuomintang party and its leader Sun Yat-sen, sought the help of foreign powers.
Sun Yat-sen's efforts to obtain aid from the Western democracies were ignored. He turned to the Soviet Union in 1921.
Soviet leadership initiated a dual policy of support for the KMT and CPC.
Struggle for power, between KMT and CPC, began. Causes Important Events Sino-Japanese War Emily Allee
Ryon Terry Communist Party of China Kuomintang Long Term Causes Leaders Who was the war fought between? Sun Yat-Sin Chiang Kai Shek Mao Zedong May Fourth Movement Northern Expedition Civil War Starts Again Encirclement Campaigns Important Events Cont. Problems of the Civil War -Referred to as the "Founder of the Nation" in the Republic of China
-First president of the Republic of China
-Founder of the Chinese Nationalist Party(KMT)
-Developed the "Three Principles of the People"
The people's livelihood America Enters the War Japan Surrenders -Was an influential member of the (KMT).
-Served as Sun Yat-Sen's military aide.
-Became leader of KMT after Sun Yat-Sen's death
-Important generals under Chiang included Bai Chongxi and Chen Cheng. Zhou Enlai -Second in command for Mao Zedong -Became the first Premier of the People's Republic of China
-Played an important role in reinforcing the control of the Communist Party's rise to power, forming foreign policy, and developing Chinese economy. -The (CPC) Communist Party of China supported by Soviet enforcements.
-Ruling political party of the People's Republic of China. -During the Japanese invasion and occupation of Manchuria, Chiang Kai-shek refused to ally with the CPC
Chiang saw communism as a bigger threat
Chiang wanted to eliminate warlords and CPC and then fight Japan
-Generals Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng conspired to kidnap Chiang
On December 12, 1936 Chiang was kidnapped and forced into a truce with the CPC.
Became known as the X'ian Incident
-Both parties suspended fighting to form a Second United Front to fight the Japanese in the Second Sino-Japanese War General Zhang Xueliang and Chiang Kai-Shek -1926-1928
-In 1926, Chiang Kaishek began the March to the North
Sent political agents to rally up support among the ordinary people
Promised a national revolution and a new order in China.
Main purpose was to unify China under KMT and end rule of local warlords. Shanghai Massacre -April 12, 1927
-Led by military forces of Chiang kai-Shek
-Attack on Chinese Communist Party organizations in Shanghai
Hundreds of CPC members and supporters were arrested and executed
Survivors were drove to the mountains of Southeastern China
-Led to a split between left and right wings of KMT -May 4, 1919
-Protest movement against peace treaties that ended the Great War of 1914-1918.
Strikes, demonstrations, and boycott of Japanese goods kept China in a state of unrest.
-Added strength to the New Tide movement, which started in 1916 and aimed at getting rid of old-fashioned ideas and introduce modern ideas of freedom, equal rights, and scientific progress.
In a way the movement paved the way for the events that caused the Chinese Civil War Long March -Between the late 1920's and early 1930's
-Refers to campaigns launched by forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government(KMT) against forces of the Communist Party of China during the Chinese Civil War.
Intended to destroy the developing Chinese Red Army
-The first four Encirclement Campaigns of the KMT military were unsuccessful.
-With the close cooperation of Nazi Germany the fifth campaign was successful
-Led directly to the Long March of the Communist army. - Was fought between China and Japan, was the largest war in Asia of the 20th century. The tension that led to it had its roots in the First Sino-Japanese War, which took place nearly three decades previously. The Second Sino-Japanese War began with several years of scattered battles and incidents that eventually led to a full blown war that would not end until the culmination of World War II. -October 10, 1934
Chinese Communists, led by Mao Zedong.
Lasted one year and was over 7,000 miles across China
Not just one march, but a series of marches as various Communist armies escaped to the North.
Only 8,000 of 80,000 survived the march
Became a symbol of the hardships the CPC had to face until they gained power in 1949.
-Largely due to his actions during the march, Mao Zedong became a very popular political leader. -June 1946
-1 Million KMT troops launched a great offensive in North China
-Most people thought the KMT would easily win.
They had an American-trained and American-equipped army of 3 million.
Had control of big cities in mainland China.
Had control of main railway lines
Had control of some of the richest provinces.
Had a lot of money and weapons.
Chaing was recognized as the true leader of China by most foreign countries.
-CPC was seen as weak.
They only had the countryside areas
Had no airforce
Had few railways
Had no Navy
Had an army of only 1 million men
Had no support from foreign countries - Founder of the People's Republic of China in 1949.
- Governed the country as
the Chairman of the Central
Committee of the CPC.
-Converted China to a single party socialist state - The (KMT) known as Kuomintang, was the Nationalist party of China
-Was one of the dominant political parties of Republic of China
-Still a major political party in Tawain -Collapse of Qing Dynasty
led to the fight for power between KMT and CPC
-Warlords and Regionalism
The collapse of the government brought abusive warlords
People became restless and wanted a unified China
-Death of SunYat-Sen
-Chiang’s Kai-Shek’s rise to power and his decision of getting rid of the left wing faction inside the government at all costs. - In 1941, when China entered World War II, the Second Sino-Japanese War was subsumed into the larger World War II effort. The United States and the Soviet Union aided China in the war against Japan. -Faced with civilian atomic bomb casualties at home and destruction of the Japanese army by the Soviets in Manchuria, the Japanese emperor signed a formal surrender on September 9 1945.
-This marked the end of the Sino-Japanese war. X'ian Incident Short Term Causes -Long March
Communists confiscated property, weapons from the local warlords and landlords and recruited peasants “solidifying the appeal for the masses”.
Only 7.000 to 8,000 men made it to Shananxi, this great retreat made Mao the undisputed leader of the communist party of China and increased his appeal towards the peasants.
This event widened more the left and the right factions and increased Chiang’s commitment to eliminate the CCP.
-The Second Sino-Japanese war (1937-1945)
Chiang Kai-shek saw the CPC as a greater threat than the Japanese and focus in both fight the Japanese and fight the CCP.
The developments of the Second Sino-Japanese war were advantageous to the Communists.By the end of the war, most of the peasants were in support of the communists rather than to Nationalists. Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki -August 1945
-The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki severely weakened the Japanese supremacy in the Sino-Japanese war.
-Three days after the bombing of Hiroshima, on August 9, the Soviet Union renounced its non-aggression pact with Japan and launched attacks on Japanese troops in Manchura. Peoples Liberation Army -By March 1947 the KMT had won multiple battles against the communists including capturing the, Yanan, the communist capital. -The newly named People's Liberation Army concentrated on guerilla warfare making night raids and ambushes.
-The CPC managed to take central and northern China in 1947
Forced the KMT to become defensive.
Caused the support of many peasants who joined the communists. -By 1948 the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) had enough men to abandon the previous tactics of Guerrilla warfare and instead attack the KMT in conventional warfare.
-The battle took place around the towns of Suchow and Yungcheng in between the Huai River and Lung Hai railway.
Secured the Communists dominance in the North and Central China, which later allowed for the capture of Beijing in April and Shanghai in may.
The total loss for the GMD was 555,000 men, while the PLA lost only 134,000.
-The significance of this battle
PLA was now a conventional army
PLA did not have to use guerilla warfare tactics in order to win
PLA defeated the main force of KMT. Allowing the capture of major cities. Battle of Huai-Hai Proclamation of the People's Republic of China -October 1, 1949 the Communists were able to proclaim the existence of a new kind of China, The People's Republic of China.
-This came after they finally captured
Guangzhou in October
Beijing in April
Shanghai in May.
The only area not under the Communists control was the island of Taiwan.
-Realizing that he had lost the civil war, Chiang Kai-shek retreated to the Island of Tawain
taking 200,000 Guomindang troops with him as well as China's gold reserves.
From 1949 till 1975 when Chiang Kaishek died, he ruled Taiwan as the 'Republic of China'.
-The Proclamation of the People's Republic of China was made at the gate of Heavenly Peace in Tiananmen Square in Beijing.
-Mao Zedong became the Chairman of the party -KMT controlled cities suffered from inflation and a lower wage value.
Caused strikes and robberies.
The price of a Kilo of rice rose to 500,000 Chinese dollars
Caused riots and the collapse of public order.
This caused people in the cities to support the communist party.
To crack down on the loss of support the KMT drew up blacklists of opponents and censorship was put in place. Results -Communist party expanded to 100 million people
-U.S. aided KMT
-The KMT was never able to control the countryside
-The CPC used guerilla tactics effectively, which demoralized the KMT
-600,000 troops and 2 million refugees fled to Taiwan
-Many Chinese experts (“China Hands”) in the U.S. government were blamed for the loss of China and consequently had their careers destroyed by McCarthy
-25% of the world’s population became communist
-This caused there to be less Asian advisors in government, possible causing Kennedy to develop a faulty policy in Vietnam
Truman and his Democratic party lost political support, so it caused Lyndon Johnson determined to uphold South Vietnam at all costs
-Relations between the People’s Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan) were tense and often drew the United States into defending Taiwan