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Deaf Culture Awareness by Anne Frost & Karen Lister

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Anne Frost

on 4 September 2013

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Transcript of Deaf Culture Awareness by Anne Frost & Karen Lister

Deaf Culture


Signed English
Cued Speech
Oral/Auditory Oral
Total Communication
Speech reading
Finger spelling

Communication/Language Options

Socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions and all other products
of human work and thoughts. (American Heritage Dictionary, third edition, 1992)
What defines Culture?

Computer – MS Word/ Instant Message
Video Phone/ Relay Service
Do not hang up
Pen and Paper
Visual Aids/Communication board

How to Communicate with Deaf?

Brief History of Deaf Culture
Non-Urgent Urgent

One light tap Repeated tapping
(two seconds) (two or three quick taps)
signals a signals urgency.
non-urgent message.

Touching Etiquette

It’s not polite!
Should find another way
Wait till two people finish talking
Say “excuse me” before disturb their conversation

With Hearing people:

Walk through between two people talking in the hallway?

A Deaf person with a frown on their face.

What does it mean?
A Deaf person may talk to you in LOUD/ Angry voice, does that mean he/she mad at you?

If Deaf person breathes heavily, does that mean he/she is having asthma attacks?

They cannot hear themselves to control their voice or breathing . Please let Deaf person know if he/she is talking too loud or breathing heavily.

In need to be aware of:
Facilitate communication. (Deaf Vs Hearing)
Signs exactly what speaker/member of group says.
Strict Code of Ethics.
Interpreter’s Role

Speak directly to the Deaf Person.
Allow the interpreter to stand or sit close to you.
Look at the Deaf person, not the interpreter.
Speak at a normal rate of speech and make your statements clear.

What defines "Deaf Culture?"
People who are Deaf form a community, finding within it not just social interaction, but emotional support.
It is not so much a geographical community, as one held together by a common language: American Sign Language.

(Matthew S. Moore & Linda Levitan, For Hearing People Only. (3rd Edition) 325.
Members of the Deaf community tend to view  deafness  as a difference in human experience rather than a disability. 

Ladd, Paddy (2003). Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood.
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc

Early 1800’s, Gallaudet became interested in deaf education.
Traveled to Paris Institute for the Deaf.
Met Clerc who brought Sign Language to America from Paris.
Founded the American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Connecticut in 1817.
Elements of “Deaf Culture”
ASL used for communication.
Pride in “Deaf” history and culture.
Label oneself as capital “D” Deaf for social and use the lower case “d” deaf to refer to medical deafness.
What defines Deaf Community?
Deaf people who use ASL as their main form of communication
Children of Deaf Parents (CODA)
Sign Language Interpreters
Teachers of the Deaf
Others who have a “place” in the community
Ease with which peer communication is developed.
Increases self esteem.
Increases chance to develop social skills.
Being able to associate with other individuals with a common bond.
Having strength in numbers.
Positive Associations with Deaf Community
Negative Associations with Deaf Community
Deaf community is spread out.
Distance, Time, and Effort
Cost of Transportation
Lack of support system.
Lack of Communication Access with Hearing society
- family, doctors, employers, etc.
St. Louis as Oral City vs. Rest of the United States
Affecting Deaf Individuals emotionally and mentally.
In tight-knit Deaf communities, rumor and gossip is very common. (Deaf Grapevine)
Confidentiality can be perceived as antisocial.
Advantage of Technology
The use of new communications technology, along with increased awareness of accessibility have reduced many barriers.
Role of Technology in Deaf Culture
Closed/Open Captioning (CC)
Videophone (VP)
Video Relay Services/Interpreting (VRS/VRI)
iPad / Tablet
Video Relay Service
Talk normal like a regular phone conversation between two hearing people
Assistive Devices for the Deaf
Visual Doorbell/Phone flasher
Alarm Clock
Visual Fire Alarm
Closed/Open Captioning
How to Communicate with Deaf on One-on-One?
Eye to Eye Contact
Give person your full attention
Facial expressions. Body language. Visual.
Keep hands away from face and mouth.
Talk slow (but not too slow) if individual able to read lips
Fingerspelling/Basic Common Signs
Tidbits on Lip-Reading
Often when people think of lip-reading, they think Deaf people can read lips like this:
When in reality, often best
lip-readers can only read like this at their top performance:
At the average, most lip-readers only get little bit of message look like this and have to fill in the blank or guess it with very little clue:
Be Patient.
Ask if understand?
Watch deaf person’s eyes to ensure understanding
Deaf tend to nod, ignore it.
Ask for clarification.
Ask them to repeat what you said/ask?
If still do not understand, try rephrase it.
Put in writing a short and simple phrase.
Deaf Etiquette
Deaf Etiquette
Very different in many ways from the etiquette of the hearing world.
Described as direct, expressive and not shy at all (bluntness).
Very important to maintain eye contact, speak expressively.
Eye Contact Etiquette
Acceptable for Hearing Acceptable for Deaf People: People:

Breaking eye contact in Ending a conversation
a spoken conversation can is signaled through
be a polite, yet quick signal comments explaining
that it is time to leave why it is time to leave,
without breaking eye
In EMERGENCY situation:
Touch person with more alerting pressure and quick taps repetitively.
With Deaf people:
Using An Interpreter: Do's
Using An Interpreter: Don’ts
Say things to the interpreter that you do not want repeated to the Deaf person.
Ask Interpreter for opinions.
Stop to watch or to wait for the interpreter to begin signing.
Hold personal conversations with the interpreter during assignment.
How to request an Interpreter
Paraquad staff members often need interpreters to communicate with participants and employees.

Please submit a completed interpreter request form to the deafway@paraquad.org .

Fees will be charged to the appropriate department.
“We could all take a lesson from crayons:
some are sharp, some are beautiful,
some have weird names,
and all are different colors,
but they still learn to live in the same box.”
A Deaf person not using voice.
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