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Early River Valley Civilizations

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Eric Austin

on 10 February 2016

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Transcript of Early River Valley Civilizations

2725 B.C.
1950 B.C.
400 B.C.
3500 B.C.
1175 B.C.
Early River Valley Civilizations
City-States in Mesopotamia
Fertile Crescent
Sumerian Culture
cultural diffusion
: a new idea or a product spreads from one culture to another
Egypt Unites into a Kingdom
Egyptian Culture
Harappan Civilization
River Dynasties in China
Dynastic Cycle
CITY STATES OF MESOPOTAMIA
EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION
DYNASTIES IN CHINA
INDUS RIVER VALLEY
"land between the rivers"
SUMERIANS
SPECIALIZED WORKERS
ADVANCED CITIES
COMPLEX INSTITUTIONS
RECORD KEEPING
IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY
A city which functions much like an independent country today
FIRST CIVILIZATION
SUMERIAN RELIGION
polytheism
: the belief in more than one god
ENLIL
UGALLU
GOD OF STORMS AND AIR
DEMONS WHO PROTECTED HUMANS
LIFE IN SUMERIAN SOCIETY
SUMERIAN SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
the beginning of social classes
Kings, Landholders, Priests
Wealthy Merchants
Ordinary Sumerians (Farmers)
Slaves
Invented...
WHEEL
SAIL
PLOW
Developed arithmetic and geometry
Created arches, columns, ramps, and the ziggurat
Created cuneiform (a system of writing)
c. 2350 B.C.
SARGON OF AKKAD
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sargon_of_Akkad
Created the world's first
EMPIRE
defeated the city-states of Sumer...
c. 2100 B.C.
EPIC OF GILGAMESH
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epic_of_Gilgamesh
HAMMURABI
1792 BC - 1750 BC
Code of Hammurabi
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/ancient/hamframe.asp
"to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers"
Pharoah
: Egyptian god-kings
Theocracy
: government in which rule is based on religious authority
31 Dynasties
2,600 years
The Gift of the Nile
EGYPTIAN RELIGION
EGYPTIAN WRITING
EGYPTIAN SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
polytheism
: the belief in more than one god
AMON-RE
OSIRIS
ISIS
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/re.htm
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/isis.htm
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/osiris.htm
"Isis" by Jeff Dahl - Own work. Licensed under GFDL via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Isis.svg#/media/File:Isis.svg
"Sun God"
"God of the Dead"
"Ideal Mother/Wife"
ANUBIS
"God & Guide of the Underworld"
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/anubis.htm
mummification: embalming and drying a corpse to prevent decay
hieroglyphics
: hieros and gluph, meaning sacred carving
OLD KINGDOM
MIDDLE KINGDOM
developed a calendar to track the flooding of the Nile
developed written numbers for counting, adding, subtracting
egyptian medicine became famous
Geography of India
sophisticated city planning
buildings of oven baked bricks
sophisticated plumbing and sewage
precise grid system
HARAPPAN RELIGION
HARAPPAN CULTURE
HARAPPAN LANGUAGE
so far has been impossible to decipher...
housing suggests that division between social classes was not great...
theocracy
Early representations of Shiva...
Ancient China
Xia Dynasty
- the FIRST dynasty according to legend
SHANG DYNASTY (1700 B.C. - 1027 B.C.)
CHINESE CULTURE
chinese believed they were the center of the civilized world
the family is central to Chinese society
spirits of family ancestors had the power to bring good or bad luck
Mandate of Heaven: Divine approval to rule China
ZHOU DYNASTY (1027 B.C. - 256 B.C.)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesopotamia
SUMERIAN CITY-STATES
AKKADIAN EMPIRE
BABYLONIAN EMPIRE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt
ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES
c. 3300 B.C.
unpredictable flooding/droughts
no natural barriers
limited natural resources
SOLUTIONS
dug irrigation ditches
built walled cities
began trading goods with neighbors
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumer
c. 3000 B.C.
Priests & Rulers Share Control
earliest government controlled by temple priests
success of crops depended on blessings from gods
priests managed irrigation systems & collected taxes
military leaders became full time rulers
2500 B.C.
- new city states begin popping up
worked hard to earn the gods' protection...
souls of the dead went to the "land of no return"
"dust is their fate & clay their food"
Epic of Gilgamesh
- ancient Mesopotamian poem
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epic_of_Gilgamesh
series of rulers from a single family
ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES
The Nile flooded regularly and consistently
if waters were few feet lower; people starved
if waters were a few feet higher; houses were destroyed
deserts on either side acted as natural barriers
c. 3200 B.C.
Egypt Unites Into a Kingdom
villages were under the rule of two separate kingdoms
c. 3000 B.C.
- Egypt is unified under Narmer (Menes)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narmer
Old Kingdom
2660 - 2180 B.C.
Ka
- eternal life force
expected to reign forever
tombs were made for their life after death
Old Kingdom was the age of pyramid building
ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES
BLOW DRY AIR WESTWARD
CARRYING MOISTURE FROM OCEAN
yearly floods were unpredictable
rivers sometimes changed course
cycle of wet & dry seasons were unpredictable
historians know less about these people than other early civilizations
c. 3200 B.C. - people were farming along the Indus River
c. 1750 - Indus Valley Culture disappears...
earthquakes and floods may have changed the Indus River
ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES
The Yellow River flooding could be disastrous
geographically isolation limited trade/contact
invasions did occur from the west and north
Shang Dynasty
- lasted from c. 1700 B.C. to 1027 B.C.
Zhou Dynasty
- lasted from c. 1027 B.C. to 256 B.C.
"filial piety"
society was divided between nobility and peasantry
used
oracle bones
to interpret the will of the gods
Zhou leaders declared the final Shang emperor to be a poor ruler...
roads and canals were built to stimulate trade & agriculture
coined money was introduced
developed the use of cast iron for weapons and agriculture
WARRING STATES
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warring_States_period
Section 1 - City-States in Mesopotamia
Section 2 - Pyramids on the Nile
Section 3 - Planned Cities on the Indus
Section 4 - River Dynasties in China
Full transcript